How Does The Author Tell the Story? Day 1 of 3
Lesson 3 of 5
Objective: SWBAT ask and answer questions to analyze the structure of a literary text.
Summary and Context
When teaching new standards, we have new terms to understand. Take for example the term text complexity. What does this mean? To me, it means various things. One thing I interpret it to mean is that I need to keep in mind whether the texts I am presenting students with are too hard, too easy, or just right for our students. However, deciding what level a book is at can get complex itself when we think about the different purposes we might use a text for.
For example, The Tiny Seed, by Eric Carl is at a first grade reading level when you are looking at the simple language and easy words used in the book. Thus, for most of my students, the decoding part of the reading would be too easy to use this book for many second grade purposes. However, the author uses elements within the story that make it a complex text for my students when we are looking at it through the lens of author's purpose. He integrates fiction and nonfiction information to tell the story. The author also shows the life cycle of a sunflower, how the seed travels over different geographical landscapes, and integrates information about the seasons of the year. All of these content elements led me to ask, "How does the author tell the story while also imparting information?" I want my students to know how these elements overlap to tell the story. Because it is a long story, I am teaching this concept over three days. This is the first part of second read of the book and with the above question, I am helping my students analyze the author’s purpose.
As we read, I am having the students practice the vocabulary strategy of context clues to help them figure out the meaning of certain words. I am asking them to think about whether the author gives us enough clues to know the meaning of the word. In this way, they are analyzing the author's structure. This is a a challenge for them.
Then, we move into Socratic Seminar to discuss the text and the author's choices as a group. I am spending much time with this routine because we are in the second half of second grade and they need the practice.
Finally, the students write about what they are learning and share with the group.
I start with students on the rug and share the student friendly objective: "I can ask and answer questions to analyze the structure of the story."
When I share the objective, one question I ask my students is, "What do you understand about the objective? What do you not understand?"
In asking, I invite them into the learning. I explain what the word "structure" is. I let them know that each author writes in a certain way about certain topics. I ask them, "Do you remember when we read the story Stirring Up Memories? I follow up with, "How did that author write the story?" (This is an autobiography and thus provides a good contrast.)
I continue with, "Well sometimes the structure is very obvious, we can see it right away, other times, we need to look closer to understand how a story is being told."
With this, I send off to their tables.
Reading the Story
I spend a half hour reading the story out loud and letting students ask questions/explore concepts in the story because I want to make sure students walk away with a clear and deep understanding of what is happening in the story. Here is a general outline of how we proceed in this close reading of the text:
- To start, I have students notice how the story begins in a particular season: autumn. To have them record notes about autumn, I give them a blank piece of white paper, which they fold in fourths. For each square they use illustrations and some words from the story about the season that is happening in the story. I have a conversation with my students to determine what season we have come upon.
- Also, I have created a sheet to analyze certain words. I pause when we come upon that word, ask the students to write the context clues, then use those context clues to come up with a definition. I ask the students if the author provides enough and clear context clues to help us figure out the meaning of words. If there are not, then, I ask a few students, one from each table to use the dictionary to obtain a definition.
- Continuing on, I read pages 179 to 183 with the students. In addition to asking questions about the meaning of words, my questions are intended to invite students to have a conversation with the author. Remember this is the second read and the goal is to analyze the author's purpose. Thus, I ask: "Why would the author tell us this now?" Also, why would the author want us to know the tiny is struggling to keep up? These questions help them engage in deeper analysis.
- Additionally, I ask them to use the illustrations to find out how the author is showing us something has changed and how that adds to what the words are saying. For example, when winter comes around the illustrations give more details. When we get to this place, I ask the students to draw and use some words that describe Winter. In this way, the students are seeing the progression of the seasons and the storyline. My students benefit from this type of visual.
Since we covered much information during the table reading/discussion, I gather the students for Socratic Seminar to help review some key details of the story with these questions:
- What has happened so far in the story?
- How Does the Author Start The Story?
- What does the author need to know in order to write this story?
I am giving them another opportunity to analyze the structure of the story so that they are able to write about it. Giving them different opportunities to discuss the story structure helps my English Language Learners.
Before starting Socratic Seminar, I make sure to review the reason for it and the Rules for participation. These rules are written on a chart that is visible to the students. There is a Handing-Off chart for those who need help with discussion starters. Additionally, I am attaching a document that entails how I implement Socratic Seminar in my classroom.
I am constantly building connections between the listening, speaking, reading, and writing with my students. Now students are writing about what has happened so far in the story. They can use the events they want to write about. I encourage them to use the vocabulary words we discussed. I am curious as to what words will appear in their writing.
As they write, I walk around and offer help as needed. Some students need help with getting started, other need help with spelling words, while others need encouragement to stay on task.
Also, I make a mental note of who is meeting the task and ask if they are willing to share.
Here are some of their writing examples:
Whole Group Sharing
Now it is time for some of my students to share their learning with their peers. For me it is important to give my students many opportunities to share. It allows them to build their self-esteem. It helps them to practice the academic language they are learning. It improves their listening skills.
My students know that after each speaker they have the chance to provide feedback. The feedback protocol we follow involves two stars and a wish:
- Two stars: Two different students share specifically what they learned about their writing.
- A Wish: Another student offers a specific manner in which the speaker can improve the writing.
Here are the speakers for today: