Ten in the Pen-Joining Groups in a Ten Frame

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Students will be able to join two parts to make a ten using a ten frame.

Big Idea

Students will have fun on the farm with this lesson that guides students to find different ways to make ten.


10 minutes

For this lesson, you will need Ten in the Pen included as a PDF with this lesson.  I print the book on a colored printer, laminate the pages and bind it with a binding comb.  Follow the directions on the back page for adding Velcro to the pieces to allow students to move the animals.  You will also need an erasable marker.

I gather the students around my big chair and show them the cover of the book and ask, Do you recognize who is on the front cover of the book.  The students shout "Farmer Fred".    The title of our book is Ten in the Pen.  I am wondering what this story might be about.  Can you make a prediction?  The students start making predictions.  I listen to their predictions and then say, Let's see if any of our predictions are correct when we read our story.

Page 1:  Hi!  It’s me, Farmer Fred.  I am going to buy some more animals.  I want every one of my pens to have ten animals.  Can you help me figure out how many animals I need to buy?

Page 2:  I  have 6 cows in the pen.  How many more do I need for ten?  I invite a student come up and move animals into the empty spaces.  She record the answer.  After she is done, we say the number sentence together.

Pages 3-5:  Continue as above. 

Page 6:  I have 1 pig in the pen.  How many more do I need for ten?  WAIT!  I do not call a student up for this page. 

Page 7:  I’m sorry, there is only room for one in the pen!

Page 8:  We talk about everything that is in the pen and how there is no room for any other pigs. 

Page 9:  Oh Gordy!

We move to our Smartboard spots for direct instruction time. 

Direct Instruction

15 minutes

For this portion of the lesson, I use the Ten Frame Joining Groups Notebook File SmartBoard file.  If you have a different type of interactive whiteboard, you can still use this lesson by opening the file in Smart Notebook Express.  There is also a PDF you can use to recreate this part of the lesson.

I gather my students in front of the SMARTBoard.  I have cards with each student's name on.  These cards are used for selecting who will come up to the SMARTBoard.

I open the first slide (SMARTBoard Slide 1) with the lesson objective written in "student friendly" terms.  There is a content objective and a language objective to help focus on vocabulary expansion for my English Learners (ELs) to be congruent with SIOP instructional techniques. I read these objectives aloud for my students.

Content Objective
I can join groups to make ten with a ten frame.

Language Objective
I can tell a friend how to make ten with a ten frame. 

Page 2:  Can you fill the pen?  Write the number sentence.  We discuss that the pen is already full.  I invite a student to come up to the SMARTBoard and say the number sentence  We all say the sentence together.  

Page 3:  Can you fill the pen?  Write the number sentence.  I ask if we can move any chickens into the pen.  I ask a student to come up and move a chicken into the pen.  Another student is invited to come up and write the number sentence.  We all say the sentence together. 

Pages 4-7:  Continue as above.

Page 8:  It is Turn and Talk Time.  This is a planned activity that allows student to practice their academic language.  This is especially beneficial for my English Language Learners. The students hold hands with their designated Turn and Talk partner and hold their hands in the air.  I check to make sure everyone has a partner.  I say to the students, My friend was making a list of ways to make ten.  Can you think what might come next?

I give the student time to talk.  Several groups of students immediately figure out the pattern and discuss the answer.  Other students are confused.  I ask them some guiding questions.  I take my hand and run it down the first column of numbers and say, What do you notice about these numbers?  I do the same thing with the second column. This helps more students figure out the pattern.  When they are all done discussing, I ask a student to share the answer her group came up with.  The student said 5 and 5 is next.  When I asked how she knew she said, it is counting up on this side and down on this side.  I  write the answer down and then ask the student to talk about what might come next.  The students seem to understand a bit  better this time.  They discuss their answers and I ask another student to share.  After the student shares, we prepare for guided practice. 

Guided Practice

10 minutes

For this lesson, you will need the Farm Animal Masks.  These masks have been used in previous lessons as well.  You will two different animals, ten copies of each.  You will also need to create a ten frame on the floor with masking tape that is large enough for the students to stand or sit it.  (Don't leave the tape on the floor for an extended period of time if you have carpeting in your classroom or you will have a very unhappy custodian!)

I gather the students in a semi circle around the ten frame.  I do not put students at the top of the ten frame because I do not want the students looking at it upside down.   I pass out the masks and I tell the students, We are going to practice combining groups to make ten.

I want the cows to come forward.  Okay cows, let's get you to get in the pens.  Once the ten pens are filled, I ask the students how to write the number sentence.  I write it on the whiteboard. 

I have one cow step out and a horse step in.  A student says the number sentence and I record it again.  Another cow steps out and is replaced with a horse.  We write the number sentence.

We continue in this manner until all of the animals have been switch out.  I ask the students to make predictions as to what the number sentence will be as we are going along. It is important to help all of your students to identify the number pattern created when we make all of the combinations to ten (MP7). Initially that is why the number sentence only changes by 1s. Later, when students have had many opportunities to practice making ten, doing combinations to ten out of order is critical because we don't want students to rely solely on identifying the pattern.

When we are all done, I collect the masks and we prepare for independent practice. 

Independent Practice and Informal Assessment

10 minutes

For this part of the lesson, you will need Farm Animal Combining Groups to Make Ten included as a PDF with this lesson.  I staple the two copies together.  When I pass them out to the students, I have them pull the pages apart.  They write their name on the space provided.

I tell the students I need them to cut out the animals.  I want you to make one pile of cows and one pile of pigs.  Don't mix them up.  I circulate around the room to make sure the students are putting the animals in separate piles  I also help students who struggle with fine motor skills by cutting around the outside of the paper.  This speeds the process up a bit and still allows them to practice cutting.

I tell the students that we are going to practice joining groups in our ten frame.  I want you to fill every pen in the ten frame with cows.  I give the students time to do this.  After they are done filling the frames, I have them record the number sentence on the recording sheet.  I then have them take the bottom left cow away and replace it with a pig.  After I have walked around and checked to make sure that students have switched out the animals correctly, I have them write the number sentence.  I guide them through one more switch, then I set them off to work on their own.

I circulate around the room as the children are working.  See video.  A few kiddos figure out the pattern and decide to try doing it without using the manipulatives.  I remind them that I want them to actually move the animals so I know they are making a connection between the animals and the numbers they are writing down.

When the students are done, I give them a bag to take their animals home in.  Several ask for another copy of the recording sheet so they can take it home and practice.  I am more than happy to do this for them.