I introduce the rhetorical appeal known as Logos. Logos is one of three persuasive strategies in the rhetorical triangle. The other two strategies are Ethos and Pathos. The triangle insinuates that balancing logic (logos), ethics (ethos), and emotional appeals (pathos) results in substantiated, convincing arguments. Therefore, this lesson has a connection to our previous lesson on Ethos as well as our future lesson in Pathos.
Logos use facts and numbers to convince others of a claim. The Logos Flip Chart contains the definition and also addresses prior knowledge via the KWL chart. Most second grade students enter with cognitive framework or schema to organize or interpret this type of strategy. Therefore, I start from the basic and model concrete examples, using this flip chart.
Since prior knowledge about Logos is virtually nonexistent, I am building prior knowledge by making students aware of this concept. Eventually, students will identify when Logos are used in advertisements and in their daily lives. Making connections to real world experiences will develop critical thinking skills. Students are encouraged to apply deductive and inductive reasoning skills in this lesson.
This activity relates to the standard by encouraging students to support their opinions in written work. Students provide valid reasons through the use of persuasive techniques to sustain their opinions. Therefore, students must use relevant and sufficient evidence to support their claims or opinions.
I model a sample persuasive writing to students prior to gradually releasing ownership of this activity to them. Second grade students need concrete examples to understand expectations for this activity. First, we discuss the definition of Logos and clarify any misconceptions during the discussion. We select a topic to use as a claim from a list of persuasive writing ideas that I give students. Then, I ask students to assist me in completing the Persuasive Writing Graphic Organizer. Once students complete the organizer, I ask students to select only one supportive reason from their list. We draw a picture with a caption that shows our claim with supportive reasoning based on logos strategy. Then we discuss our product (advertisement using logos). I ask students to select a different topic for their project so that they are not tempted to copy from the model.
I gradually release ownership to students as they work collaboratively in pairs or triads to create an advertisement or propaganda that exemplifies "Logos". I provide students with a graphic organizer to guide them in the writing process. Students share their ideas within their collaborative team, using digital resources such as websites listing ideas for persuasive topics, access to online search tools, downloaded articles on various persuasive topics, etc. to gather supports for their drawing. I ask students to follow a caption format, by drawing a picture and text description to show an example of Logos.
Students work in collaborative groups to create examples of Logos with their teams. Rules, Roles, Norms for collaborative teams are discussed at the end of my Logos flip chart presentation . Once students gather their materials, they discuss with teammates a plan to create their version of Logos. I circulate and assist as needed. Students are provided laptops for researching concepts and gathering information. They are informed that they will have a visual presentation ready by the end of this segment. Therefore, students must budget their time to complete their project within the allotted schedule.
I encourage students to communicate knowledge orally and visually to others, as is required in CCSS-ELA speaking and listening standards. I explain to students that this is a life skill that will continue through their schooling in middle school, high school, college, and workplace, etc. I think it is important for students to understand that learning has a purpose in real life. Knowing this makes learning more meaningful to them. Students' Logos Presentation reveal that they are more at ease presenting since we have done this activity each day since the beginning of the year. Practice builds confidence.
As students share their ideas, I encourage them and their audience to elaborate on further ideas that may be generated from each presentation. Students often give ideas to presenters and vice versa. It is a brainstorming session of sorts.