##
* *Reflection: Connection to Prior Knowledge
Clock Facts - Section 3: Elapsed Time Using Analog Clocks

Students were very familiar with using analog clocks, even though they had stated they often didn't use analog clocks at home. Our school uses only digital clocks, and I notice only a few of my students wear watches and those are also digital. With the prevailing use of digital clocks, I expected the class would be more challenged when telling time with traditional analog clocks.

The students have a solid foundation and prior knowledge of learning to tell time, and they were very comfortable practicing the content in this lesson.

*Student Familiarity*

*Connection to Prior Knowledge: Student Familiarity*

# Clock Facts

Lesson 1 of 13

## Objective: SWBAT create clocks prior to calculating elapsed time on an analog clock.

*55 minutes*

#### Warm Up

*10 min*

Using a large analog clock, I set the time to 8: 47. *"What time does this clock say?"* I chose this time because I want to see if students are able to tell time, to the minute, accurately. I continue by setting the clock to different times to probe student prior knowledge. I am listening for time vocabulary, words such as half past and quarter after.

This review of time and vocabulary is familiar to my students, and it showed they retained a second grade understanding. We then move to recording vocabulary and terminology in their math journal, collecting words we would be using in this unit including elapsed time, half past, a quarter till, and language specific to application (e.g., 8:15 a.m., fifty-nine).

Students are able to explain why the number 72 would not be used when measuring time, stating there are only sixty minutes in an hour.

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#### Create Clocks

*25 min*

Because many of my students share they do not have analog clocks at home, I decide it would be beneficial to have them make clocks to use at home for homework and practice with time. Using an analog clock also allows me to create a visual connection to quarter hours by shading in the one fourth sections which can be used to make connections to fractions in third grade.

I give the students a circle to cut out for the clock and demonstrate folding the circle to define the quarter hours, and colored these sections different colors. As the students follow my model, we practice describing the quarter-hour sections as fourths. It is important to make explicit connections to help students make the transfer and apply their fraction knowledge. While the students work on their clocks, I use this time as an informal assessment to circulate and question students knowledge of time. I ask questions to small groups and individual students including:

- What are the differences in the hands?
- What do the numbers mean for hours?
- What do the numbers mean for minutes?
- How can I figure out how much time is between two numbers?

Telling time with the quarter hour terms challenges the students, but they tell time using the word fifteen. The clocks provide practice with quarter hour references and something I will continue to reinforce through different lessons on measuring time.

#### Resources

*expand content*

To demonstrate their understanding of elapsed time on an analog clock, the students use individual math clocks to compute elapsed time. They are not using the ones they made, as the hands do not rotate easily and the precision of minute marks isn't in place.

I begin by asking questions using hours for elapsed time, based on events that take place at school. I use the familiar shared experiences of our school day, so that all students can relate to the problem. When the students demonstrate they can solve these problems without needing to use the clocks, I move on to questions to include half hours. These are followed by questions including quarter hours and then minutes.

Students use strategies of counting by fives and adding the extra minutes to solve the problems.

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#### Wrap Up

*5 min*

To close, I keep the overall focus on reviewing the concept the students struggled with the most, quarter hours. The students are asked to set their math clocks, to various *"quarter after"* and "*quarter till"* times rapidly.

Within this, I also ask how much time has elapsed from one given time to the next. For example, if they have set their clocks to 7:45 and the next time given is 8:15, I ask them to tell me how much time has elapsed. I also include practice for students to set clocks a half an hour earlier or later from the quarter hour marks such as set your clock a half an hour after 8:15.

The students engaged in the quick pace of this game type review.

*expand content*

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- LESSON 1: Clock Facts
- LESSON 2: Elapsed Time Flip Books
- LESSON 3: Elapsed Time Using Train Schedules
- LESSON 4: Elapsed Time - What Time Will I Get Home?
- LESSON 5: Elapsed Time Assessment
- LESSON 6: Area of Irregular Polygon
- LESSON 7: Area in Real Life With Irregular Polygons
- LESSON 8: Finding Arrays In An Irregular Polygon
- LESSON 9: Area Within An Area
- LESSON 10: Build A Rectangle With A Given Area
- LESSON 11: Build A Bird Nest Box - Day 1
- LESSON 12: Build A Bird Nest Box - Day 2
- LESSON 13: Area Word Problems - Days 1 & 2