##
* *Reflection: Student Grouping
The Parallelogram Rule - Section 2: An Intermediate Example

I find myself frequently suggesting that certain students work together in class. How do I decide?

First, if a student is struggling with a certain problem, but is relatively close to the solution, I will send him to another student who has found the solution. Not only is this good for the student who is still seeking the solution, this is also good for the one doing the teaching because she will solidify her understanding as she tries to explain it to someone else.

Second, if several students are all struggling with the same problem, and if I am confident that they have all of the pieces of the puzzle already, then I will suggest that they put their heads together to work on it. In this case, I'll often send them to a whiteboard at the back of the room so that everyone can contribute more easily. This strategy assumes that if they share their various ideas with one another, they'll stumble upon the solution. Two (or three or four) heads are better than one!

I like to use this strategy because it reinforces the notion that students are free to seek help from anyone in the room. It also frees me up to focus my attention on students whose struggles are more serious!

*Pairing Students*

*Student Grouping: Pairing Students*

# The Parallelogram Rule

Lesson 6 of 16

## Objective: SWBAT to show that addition of complex numbers may be represented by a parallelogram in the complex number plane.

*45 minutes*

#### A Particular Example

*10 min*

*This lesson is intended to provide a more rigorous basis for the parallelogram rule students identified in Complex Arithmetic. My focus here is on student discourse & questioning, rigor, and conceptual understanding. I will have students at the board as much as possible, I will encourage them to ask questions, and I will reiterate again and again that the goal is to** **understand**. Please see the video for a general overview.*

I begin class with an addition problem on the whiteboard, (2 - 3i) + (-5 + 2i), and a complex number plane next to it. Then I ask for a volunteer to demonstrate to the class how to add the two numbers and how to represent the addition in the complex number plane. This is a fairly simple demonstration, so it is an opportunity to look for a volunteer who doesn't usually put him/herself forward. During the demonstration, I try to fade into the background and I direct any class questions to the student at the board for explanation. Once the addition is complete and the numbers have been placed in the complex number plane, I'll ask this student to wrap things up by drawing for us the parallelogram formed by these three points and the origin.

Next, I ask for a second volunteer to explain to the class how they know that the quadrilateral formed by the two addends, the sum, and the origin must be a parallelogram. I'm expecting the argument to focus on the slopes of the line segments based on the known values of the numbers.

*expand content*

#### An Intermediate Example

*15 min*

Now, leaving the previous problem & its explanation on one half of the board, I use the other half to set up a new problem: (5 - 7*i*) + (a + b*i*). Again, the task is to add the two numbers, put the addends and the sum on the complex number plane, and then prove that they form three vertices of a parallelogram.

The students will work completely independently for about 5 minutes, while I circulate to see what kind of progress they're making. Next, I'll direct them to begin working together, and I'll make some suggestions about who should work with whom. (See my reflection on this below.) Along the way, I'll step in frequently with hints, suggestions, and partial explanations to keep things moving. Finally, one or two students will be asked to go the board to explain the whole solution to the class. I will try to focus the classes attention on the following:

- (a + b
*i*) stands for*any*complex number - slopes of the line segments should be given in terms of
*a*and*b* - the solution method/process is identical to the one we used in the previous section of the lesson

I will need to explain to many students that while (a + b*i*) is supposed to be arbitrary, they'll have to pick a place to put in on the plane. This may need some clarification, so I'll tap into their knowledge of geometry with an analogy. In that class, we use a single, generic triangle to prove things about *all* triangles; in this class, we're using one generic number, (a + b*i*), to stand for *all* complex numbers.

*expand content*

#### A Totally General Proof

*20 min*

Finally, I will pose the completely general question: If we add the numbers (a + bi) and (c + di) and then represent the addition in the complex number plane, will they form the vertices of a parallelogram?

Unless I have a really advanced class, I'll probably need to guide the students through this proof Socratically. Staying at the whiteboard, I like to point out that this is no different from the problems we've just done except that the particular numbers have been replaced with variables. First, we'll select positions for (a + bi) and (c + di) more or less randomly in the plane. Then we'll discuss what the sum must be, (a + c) + (b + d)*i*, and where it should be placed in the plane.

This brings us immediately to the notion of slope because to put the sum on the plane, we'll start at (a + bi) and add c, moving c units horizontally. Then we'll add d*i*, moving d units vertically. Not only does this movement bring us to the point representing the sum, but it also reveals the slope of the line segment, *d*/*c*. From here, we'll determine the slopes of all four segments and observe that the figure must be a parallelogram.

There you have it! We've just proven that complex addition can always be represented with a parallelogram in the complex plane! This is pretty neat when you consider that even addition of real numbers fits this pattern - but the parallelogram degenerates into a straight line!

The students have done a lot of hard thinking today, so I'll congratulate them on what they've accomplished and give them a night without homework.

#### Resources

*expand content*

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- UNIT 1: Modeling with Algebra
- UNIT 2: The Complex Number System
- UNIT 3: Cubic Functions
- UNIT 4: Higher-Degree Polynomials
- UNIT 5: Quarter 1 Review & Exam
- UNIT 6: Exponents & Logarithms
- UNIT 7: Rational Functions
- UNIT 8: Radical Functions - It's a sideways Parabola!
- UNIT 9: Trigonometric Functions
- UNIT 10: End of the Year

- LESSON 1: Quadratic Equations, Day 1 of 2
- LESSON 2: Quadratic Equations, Day 2 of 2
- LESSON 3: Inconceivable! The Origins of Imaginary Numbers
- LESSON 4: Complex Solutions to Quadratic Equations
- LESSON 5: Complex Addition
- LESSON 6: The Parallelogram Rule
- LESSON 7: Complex Arithmetic and Vectors
- LESSON 8: Multiplying Complex Numbers, Day 1 of 4
- LESSON 9: Multiplying Complex Numbers, Day 2 of 4
- LESSON 10: Muliplying Complex Numbers, Day 3 of 4
- LESSON 11: Multiplying Complex Numbers, Day 4 of 4
- LESSON 12: Practice & Review
- LESSON 13: Dividing Complex Numbers
- LESSON 14: Quadratic Functions Revisited, Day 1
- LESSON 15: Quadratic Functions Revisited, Day 2
- LESSON 16: Complex Numbers Test