I tell students that today they will be reviewing telling time. I ask students what we count by when we read the minutes on a clock? (5s) How do you know? (there are 5 minutes and little marks between each number.) I ask each table to count by 5s starting at 5 and ending at 55. I point to each table and ask them to count out loud. When each table has done that I tell students that they now know how the minutes work on the clock. Together we do it one more time as I point to the numbers on the clock and move the minute hand along from number to number. I praise their ability to count by 5s and by listening to students I am confident that they are ready to work on telling time to the 5 minute intervals.
I draw a clock on the board and point to the number 1 and say what would the number be if he were a minute number (meaning that the minute hand were pointing to the 1 which I show by moving the minute hand to the one) (5). I repeat this by pointing to the 2 and doing the same thing - I have the kids count 5, 10 as I point 1, 2. I repeat for all of the other numbers on the clock. I ask kids what they count by if they are reading minutes to the nearest number? 5s. I tell them that is correct and I ask, "when we are reading the minute hand do we see the number we are reading or do we just have to remember to count by fives?" (We have to remember.)
Do you know how many minutes there are in 1 hour? Let's count by fives again all the way around the clock and back to the 12 while I move the minute hand around the clock, ready? 5,10,15,20, 15,30, 35,40,45, 50 55, 60. Look I made it all the way around with the minute hand in how many minutes? (60) So how many minutes in 1 time around or 1 hour? (60) Here students are making use of the structure of the clock to help them figure out how many minutes are in 1 hour (MP7)
We have been pointing to numbers and counting by 5s. I ask student which hand of the clock we have been thinking about, the big or the little? (big)
I tell the students that they could count by 1s because the minute hand is big and moves ahead every minute, but often people count to the nearest 5 and because they already know how to count by 5s they can read the big minute hand. If the minute hand were between two number because it doesn't suddenly jump from the 5 to the 6 (I demonstrate with a big hop), you might count by 5s to the 5 (I point to the numbers with the big hand as I count, 5,10, 15, 20, 25.) look I am between 25 and 30, so I might then count the little lines 26, 27, 28.
Now I tell the kids that the little hand is slow (littler brothers and sisters are always slower than the big brothers and sisters) and clock hands are like brothers and sisters. The big one runs around the clock but the little one drags behind. I ask kids what the hour would be if the little hand was pointing to the 6 and the big hand was at the 12? (6 oclock). Repeat with several other numbers. Tell students that the little guy is easy.. no counting by 5s, just read what he says, but be careful because he moves slowly along and sometimes looks closer to the next number.
I pass out the practice clocks and ask the students to set 7:00 and hold up the clock. Repeat with 4:30, 2:00 and 9:30. Now move on to the 15 minute intervals, remind kids to count by 5s to see where the hands should be. I finish with minutes to the nearest 5 minutes (such as 3:50, 9:20).
I know that students can use the practice clocks. I am aware of who is still confused about the big hand and small hand of the clock. I ask students to work with partners here, and I partner up those who are still a bit confused with those who are comfortable with clocks. I hand each group a set of time cards (these are cards that I have purchased through a school supply outlet but you could use a clock stamp and make your own cards for students to draw from) that have the times to the hour, half hour, quarter hour and three-quarter hour written in words or numbers. I tell them to place the cards face down on the table between them. One child picks up a card and reads the time. Both students try to set their clocks to the correct time. (Model with Math - MP4) They compare clocks. I remind them to watch that the hands are pointing to the right numbers and not reversed.
If I have students who are comfortable with the times above, and are partnered together, I provide them with time cards for 5 and 10 minute intervals for their practice.
As an extension today students will have another opportunity to work with time. This is a fun extension that brings meaning to time, but if you are short on time, it could be skipped or done at another point. I give each student a paper with 3 sections: Time to do things. Each section says at _____________ I like to ________. I tell students that they will be able to think of things they like to do and draw pictures of them. First they will tell what they like to do and at what time during the day. After they complete the sentences using logical times, they will draw a picture to illustrate what they like to do. Students must reason abstractly here to think about what time it is when they do certain daily tasks. (MP2)
I want students to relate time to their own lives as they learn how to read the clock and tell time to the five minute interval.