##
* *Reflection: Student Grouping
Introduction to Solutions - Section 2: Explain

The nature of chemistry classrooms, with having roughly 30 students, requires that students work with groups on their labs. It is important to ensure that all students are working well together so that they can all have experiences with doing labs and learn the content. In order to allow this to occur I find that it is important to use cooperative groups. I use cooperative groups for most of my lab activities.

In my classroom, each cooperative group has four members with distinct roles. They include:

- Primary Investigator: Keep everyone on task
- Post Doc: Read the instructions out loud
- Graduate Student: performs the procedures and enlists others to help out
- Undergraduate Student: cleans up.

The way in which I assign students to groups and to these roles is by using a deck of cards. I make sure that I have the correct number of cards per students in the class (so with 28 students I would keep the Aces through 7's of the deck) and then pass out the cards. The beauty of using cards is that it helps to ensure that students are randomly being assigned to groups each time to increase the chance that they will work with different students. If there are certain students that I feel don't work well together than as I pass out the cards I will make sure that those students don't get the same number.

Once students have their cards I then tell them to look at their cards to see what their roles are. I have one suit (for example the spades) be the Primary Investigator, another suit (for example heart) be the post-doc, etc.

If I don't have a multiple of 4, then I will either have some groups only have 3 and have those groups combine the Primary Investigator and Post-Doc, or I will add a 5th person to a group and tell that person that they are also going to be a Graduate Student.

This video shows me reviewing with my students how this works in my classroom.

*Student Grouping: Cooperative Lab Groups*

# Introduction to Solutions

Lesson 1 of 11

## Objective: Students will be able to make solutions and analyze the solutions' concentrations both qualitatively and quantitatively through performing a lab activity.

In this lesson students are introduced to solutions through performing a lab activity. The goal of this lab activity is to give students a chance to make some solutions so that they have something visual to think about as we discuss solutions. The goal is also to give students an overview of what we will be learning about pertaining to solutions.

- This lesson does not align with any specific performance expectations with the Next Generation Science Standards; however, it is imperative that students understand solutions before learning other concepts later in the year. For example students need to understand Molarity when discussing acids and bases, equilibrium reactions, and reaction rates.

- This lesson aligns with the Next Generation Science and Engineering Practice 3
**:***Planning and Carrying Out Investigations.*It does so because students are performing a lab activity.

- This lesson also aligns with the Next Generation Science and Engineering Practice 5:
*Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking.*It does so because students are using data from their lab to calculate the concentration of their solutions.

- This lesson aligns with the
*Next Generation Crosscutting Concept 3: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity*. It does so because students are learning about solutions and how they are composed of different proportions of substances.

For this lesson there are several resources needed for each group:

- 1 test tube rack
- 4 test tubes labeled A, B, C, and D (I have these pre-labeled for students)
- 1 container of Koolaid (with sugar). This must be bought fresh every year and replenished because it gets clumpy.
- 1 container of salt
- 1 bottle of water
- 1 scoopula (or you could have 2 so they don't cross-contaminate)
- 1 weighing boat (or you could have 2 so they don't cross-contaminate)
- 1 balance
- 1 stirring rod (or you could have 2 so they don't cross-contaminate)
- 1 25mL graduated cylinder

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#### Explain

*5 min*

To begin this lesson I pass out the unit8 intro lab to students and have them quickly look over to themselves.

I then tell them, " We are going to be starting our new unit today which is all about water quality. In order to learn about this we need to first understand what solutions are. The goal of this lab activity will be to make some solutions and then analyze them both qualitatively and quantitatively."

I tell students that they are going to be making four solutions and that the instructions are clearly written for them on their papers. I choose not to go over the details of the lab with students because this is fairly straightforward lab in terms of procedures that they should be able to figure out with their groups. This practice helps students to become more independent in the lab.

I tell them that once they are in their groups to make sure follow the instructions and to keep their solutions until they are done with the entire lab.

I then break students into cooperative groups and have them start the lab. *See my reflection about cooperative groups for details on how I do this in my classroom.*

#### Resources

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#### Explore

*50 min*

In this section of the lesson students are actually performing the unit8 intro lab at their stations with their groups. I tell them to make sure to use their calculators and that they will also need their periodic tables.

The students start by making four solutions (A-D). They then analyze the solutions both quantitatively and qualitatively by answering questions about them. Although students have not seen the equations before for the quantitative part, I find that they are able to figure them out with their groups, and some additional help from me if needed.

As students work they make sure to take on their roles within their cooperative group. This means that one student is keeping others on track, another student is reading the procedures and questions, a third student is doing the lab, and the fourth student is cleaning up.

Also as students work I walk around to make sure that the lab makes sense, check students answers, and keep students on track.

Here are some videos which show me doing this:

- This first video shows me helping a group that is not sure how to figure out the solute and solvent in the solutions. Notice that I have them go back to the definitions written on their paper to help them see how to find the answers.
- This second video shows me helping a group which is not sure how to answer the question 3
*.**When you were making the solutions, what did you notice as the solute dissolved in the solvent? What do you think is happening at the molecular level to allow this to occur? (if necessary draw a picture to explain).*

Here are two examples of student's completed labs (lab 1 and lab 2 ) notice how the students explain their answers and shows their work for the math problems.

As students complete their labs I have them wash their test tubes out in the sink and work on their vocabulary that they received after the last exam. This is an example of one student's completed vocabulary.

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The nature of this lab is to allow students to begin to explore solutions so I do not grade it as a formal lab. Rather, I grade this lab when I check their binders at the next binder check (at the end of this unit). I grade based on 20 points and just take points off if they are missing sections. For example if they only have half of the lab done they get 10 points.

Most of the students earn all of their points. Those students who do not are usually missing the last part of their lab because they simply did not take the time to complete their analysis of the solutions in terms of concentrated/dilute or saturated/unsaturated/supersaturated.

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- UNIT 1: Unit 1: Working as a chemist
- UNIT 2: Unit 2: Matter, Atoms, and the Periodic Table
- UNIT 3: Unit 3: Bonding & Periodic Table Trends
- UNIT 4: Unit 5: Stoichiometry, Chemical Reactions, and First Semester Review
- UNIT 5: Unit 6: Energy
- UNIT 6: Unit 7: Earth's Atmosphere
- UNIT 7: Unit 8: Water Quality
- UNIT 8: Unit 9: Reaction Rates and Equilibrium
- UNIT 9: Unit 10: Nuclear Chemistry and Final Exam Review

- LESSON 1: Introduction to Solutions
- LESSON 2: Solution Formation and Qualitative Description
- LESSON 3: Factors that Affect Solution Formation
- LESSON 4: Expressing Solutions Quantitatively
- LESSON 5: Ice Cream Lab
- LESSON 6: Introduction to Acids and Bases
- LESSON 7: Acid and Base Calculations
- LESSON 8: Unit 8 Quantitative Review
- LESSON 9: Acid and Base Scientific Explanation Lab
- LESSON 10: Water Quality Testing
- LESSON 11: Unit 8 Review