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# Comparing Kinetic Energy and Momentum

Lesson 12 of 14

## Objective: Students will read a college level text and determine the meaning of physics terms that relate to kinetic energy and momentum in context.

This lesson addresses the HS-PS2-2, HSA-REI.A.1, HSA-SSE.A.1a, and RST.11-12.4 standards as a way to effectively compose a logical understanding of the differences between kinetic energy and momentum in the context of a college level physics text. At this point in the unit students have constructed explanations , solved problems and created user guides for momentum and its conservation, and have modeled momentum using conceptual models, graphs and simulations to learn more about collisions. Students research concepts related to kinetic energy and momentum using the NGSS Practices of Developing and Using Models (SP2), Using Mathematical and Computational Thinking (SP5) and Constructing Explanations (SP6) for science. Students begin by using the class digital textbook and a graphic organizer to construct an understanding of a set of vocabulary words in the context of the textbook. Students also work in pairs using information from notes, an EDpuzzle, and our digital textbook to complete an activity which connects to both kinetic energy and momentum for colliding objects. During the closure activity at the end of this lesson, I ask students to construct a headline the encapsulates the important ideas from today's lesson..

I assess student understanding throughout the lesson using informal check-ins and assess each student's work at the end of the school day. I want students to learn to integrate information from various points of this course into a clear understanding of the distinction between kinetic energy and momentum. Within this lesson, I ask students to leverage skills like note taking to construct an explanation of the differences between kinetic energy and momentum. One goal of this lesson is to help students learn that synthesizing information from more than one credible source is an effective way to compare two similar concepts in physics like kinetic energy and momentum.

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#### Bell-ringer

*10 min*

This portion of the lesson follows a routine to communicate the ideas that students need to be proficient in by the end of the semester and it also highlights the goals of the lesson to students. I project a slide with the date, the objective and an additional prompt on the interactive whiteboard with a red label that says "COPY THIS" in the top left-hand corner. Sometimes the additional prompt is a BIG IDEA for the lesson or the Quote of the Day or a Quick Fact from current events that is related to the lesson. The red label helps my students easily interact with the information as soon as they enter the room and avoids losing transition time as students enter the classroom.I summarize the key ideas through the bell-ringer activity and take attendance while students write the bell-ringer in their notebooks.

Today's additional piece of information is a BIG IDEA which states that momentum and kinetic energy both depend on mass and velocity. I follow the bell-ringer with an activity that asks students to compare and contrast kinetic energy and momentum using a Venn diagram. Students spend five minutes completing the diagram in their notebooks. Some student responses include, "Kinetic energy is a scalar and momentum is a vector", and "Both kinetic energy and momentum have to do with motion". Later on within this lesson I ask students to use the information that they gather from an interactive activity and our digital textbook to create an infographic on the conservation of momentum. In this lesson, I want students to get ready to use their experience successfully working in teams, and gathering evidence to demonstrate an understanding of the conservation of momentum.

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In this section of the lesson, I distribute a Graphic Organizer for students to construct explanations of key terms that relate to kinetic energy and momentum. I use input from my literacy coach to create vocabulary building tools for my students. I project these Instructions on the interactive whiteboard at the front of the room and ask students to use the next fifteen minutes completing the graphic organizer.

During this section of the lesson students:

- Work in teams of 2-4
- Use graphic organizer to predict explanations of terms that relate to kinetic energy and momentum
- Use our digital textbook to construct explanations of terms that relate to kinetic energy and momentum

First students predict the definition of a physics term that relates to momentum and energy by circling a multiple choice option from the second column of the organizer. Then students use information from our openStax digital textbook and the Physics Classroom website to construct an explanation of the vocabulary words in the organizer, including illustrations, and whether the term is a vector or a scalar. Click here to see an example of student work.

After fifteen minutes elapse, I ask for volunteers from each table to provide a verbal summary of the vocabulary graphic organizer. I ask for a verbal feedback as an informal assessment because I want students to give me a feedback and to provide candid reflections on the ease of the task and the connections between the information they collect and concepts they already know. This helps me see where students are in terms of their ability to make connections between working definitions and more academic definitions. During the next section of the lesson, students are given a chance to apply these skills to using a set of video notes to make comparisons between the kinetic energy and momentum of moving objects.

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After students complete the graphic organizer, I project a set of notes in the form of an EDpuzzle, on the interactive whiteboard at the front of the room. This part of the lesson focuses on the differences between kinetic energy and momentum using the model of a bullet and a bowling ball. For the first ten minutes, I play the EDpuzzle at the front of the room for the entire class and pause at the pause points that have I embedded as green question marks in the video.

During the first ten minutes, students take notes in their notebooks. I ask students if they have any questions or concerns about the examples discussed in the video. We have a whole class discussion for 2-4 minutes. Some students ask, "Why did bullet lose its momentum faster than the bowling ball?" and "What if the bullet had twice the mass described in the video, would the bullet still lose during a collision?". While other students comment that "There should be a direction in the momentum calculation." I post this video on our class Edmodo wall so that students can watch, pause and replay the video in pairs and create a visual that demonstrates an understanding of kinetic energy.

After student complete the EDpuzzle, I distribute this handout which asks students to use an interactive to investigate a collision between two fish and determine the post collision velocity of the two fish. At this point in the semester, students have used the mathematical models for kinetic energy and momentum and have used interactive simulations to study the kinetic energy of an object and to learn more about the conservation of energy during a collision. I choose this handout because I want to give students another way to compare the kinetic energy and momentum of an object. After I distribute the handouts, I ask students to spend twenty minutes working in pairs using this interactive activity to:

- Determine a rule for the final velocity for each object during a collision
- Compare the momentum and kinetic energy for each object before and after collision

After twenty minutes pass, I collect the handout to grade and return to students at the end of the week.

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#### Closure

*5 min*

The closure activity asks students to spend five minutes creating a headline for this topic or issue that captured the most important aspect that should be remembered in their notebooks. Student responses include, "A bowling ball that is sliding has more momentum than a flying bullet", and "Momentum and kinetic energy both describe the physics of a moving object." I choose this type of activity to give students the opportunity to demonstrate their understanding of the key ideas from today's lesson.

This type of activity asks students to communicate important ideas about a lesson in a way that is easy to understand. To wrap up this lesson, I ask students to look at videos from this week's lessons that I post on the class Edmodo wall.

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- LESSON 1: Introduction to Momentum: Using A Graphic Organizer to Construct an Explanation
- LESSON 2: Constructing an Explanation of Momentum
- LESSON 3: Applying a Problem-Solving Protocol to Momentum Problems
- LESSON 4: Creating A User Guide To Solve Basic Momentum Problems
- LESSON 5: Practice Problems: Impulse
- LESSON 6: Modeling The Conservation of Momentum
- LESSON 7: Bumper Car Physics
- LESSON 8: Modeling Momentum Using Graphs
- LESSON 9: Using The Conservation of Momentum to Decipher Fact from Fiction
- LESSON 10: Challenge Problems: Momentum and Collisions
- LESSON 11: Traffic Violations
- LESSON 12: Comparing Kinetic Energy and Momentum
- LESSON 13: Momentum and Its Conservation: Understanding Check
- LESSON 14: Crafting A Prototype to Protect An Egg During Freefall