This lesson establishes a conceptual foundation for the next lessons on reversible and irreversible changes to matter when heat is applied or removed.
DCI - PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter
Different kinds of matter exist and many of them can be either solid or liquid, depending on temperature.
Students learn the vocabulary associated with removing or adding heat to matter and how the transfer of heat can cause the phase of matter to change.
Cross-cutting Concepts - Appendix G
- Cause and Effect (XC )
Through diagramming and acting, students conceptualize the cause, adding heat or removing heat, and its effect on matter.
Cue to the power point
Cue the project skit criteria
Science starts with a question, usually written on the board. This provides students time to consider today's topic before the lesson has officially begun.
I have established this routine with the kiddos to keep transition time short and effective and redirect student's attention back to content while allowing time for focused peer interaction.
Question for the Day: Can you name some products or materials that melt? What are they?
I set up power point slides, slides 1 and 2, for the question and student answers. I will be referring to the other slides when students develop their graphic organizer later in the lesson.
Students discuss their ideas with their neighbors, then turn to face me to indicate they have finished.
Volunteers share their ideas which I write on the board. I point to the student answers and ask if the materials are solids, liquids or gas?
"So when these solids melt they turn into a ...? So could we say that when we describe a material changing from a solid to a liquid it is melting?"
"What makes ice melt? Right, we could leave it out in the sun, the ice is absorbing heat energy."
Connecting Concepts to Previous Lesson
I project the water cycle diagram students referred to when they made diagrams in the last unit.
"When you made your water cycle poster, your diagram showed liquid water absorbing heat energy. What happened to the water once it got hot enough? I call on volunteers to explain evaporation and water moving from a liquid to a gas."
"So we could say when a liquid absorbs heat energy, it moves from a liquid to a gas. Heat energy causes materials to move through different phases. If I say something is melting, then the material is moving from a solid to a liquid and if it is evaporating it moving from a liquid to a gas."
"What if heat energy is removed from a liquid, like when you freeze something when you place water into the freezer? What does the liquid become? Right a solid. Freezing, the removal of heat energy causes liquids to change to a solid."
"Let's think about your water cycle poster you made. Your diagram showed the water vapor cooling down, losing heat energy? The water vapor was changing from a gas to a liquid. This is called ..? Right! condensation!"
"Wow 2 terms to describe heat being added to liquids and solids; melting and evaporating and 2 terms to describe heat being removed from a liquid or a gas; freezing or condensing. That is a lot of information."
"Graphic organizers can help us remember new ideas. Together lets make a graphic organizer to help you with these ideas of heat transfer."
I direct students to return to their seat, then I pass out the 'mini-lab notebook' that students will be using for the next couple of lessons.
After everyone has received their mini-lab notebook, I direct students to write their name on their booklet and turn to page one.
"Let's start by writing the 3 phases of matter that you have been learning about. I will give you clues about which state of matter I am describing. Raise your hand when you know which state I am describing."
"This phase of matter keeps its shape. Yes, solid! Write solid in the top box." As students write the terms in their box, I am writing it on my graphic organizer under the document camera.
"This phase of matter takes the shape of its container and flows. Right liquid. Liquid is the word to write in the 2nd box."
"The box on the bottom is for the phase of matter that spreads out and fills any container. Right, a gas."
"Good so now you have 3 phases of matter written in each of the boxes, starting at the top, solid, liquid and gas."
"Today we talked about how matter can change from one phase to the next when heat is added or removed. At the top of the page are 2 circles for our key: heat removed and heat added. When heat is added the material is getting hotter, so let's color that circle red. When heat is removed the material is getting colder let's color that circle blue."
"Alright, now that you have a key, let's look at the arrows. Tell your neighbor what you notice about the arrows."
Volunteers share what they notice. "So if a material moves from a solid to a liquid, like this arrow shows, does that mean heat was added or removed? Right, heat was added, so the arrow should be colored red to show enough heat was added to the solid to cause the solid to change to a liquid."
Power Point Slides 3 - 6
"What word describes what happens to a solid as it starts to change to a liquid? Yes it is melting."
I use power point slides as visuals to support the development of the graphic organizer.
I use my graphic organizer to model where to write to write the terms and then direct students to write 'melting' along the appropriate arrow. I walk the students through the rest of the graphic organizer in the same manner.
My students asked some fantastic questions about heat transfer, for example they asked what happens when heat is added to gas and is it possible for matter to move from a solid to gas and vice versa. So be ready to share other images and topics about matter and heat transfer!
"Now that you have made your own graphic organizer to help you understand how the adding or removing of heat can change the state of matter, let's create some skits to act out what you learned!"
My kiddos have been sitting for awhile so the movement will help them synthesize their learning, while addressing my kinaesthetic and social learners.
"There will be 4 skits. Each skit will demonstrate one phase change of matter."
I use the random sorter to place students in groups. I direct students to sit with their groups. Then I project the skit guidelines and criteria and review these with the students.
"Your characters must include the 2 phases of water, heat added or heat removed and a narrator. Since there will be 6 people in each group, you can decide if there will be 2 people playing one of the parts, such as the water."
"The audience should hear the words heat removed or added and the word that describes the matter moving into that phase such as condensing, evaporation, melting or freezing."
I chose to have all groups work with water to reinforce the idea that one type of matter can move through all 3 phases.
I did not have the kiddos complete a storyboard. Please see my reflection.
"Each production company will need to draft a story board before showcasing your skit. This is not an elaborate drawing. The storyboard will help you plan your skit so that everyone knows what to do."
"Your storyboard is your exit ticket. You have the rest of the time to plan your skit. Later this week, you will present your skit to the class."
I pass out the storyboard paper and check in with groups to see that they have followed the skit guidelines.