# Heat Transfer in Architecture: Conduction

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## Objective

SWBAT determine test wood, metal, and glass to determine the material that prevents and promotes heat transfer through conduction.

#### Big Idea

How can conduction help designers and engineers build eco-friendly homes? Tire of the same old Heat Transfer Lessons? Use this lesson for a real life case of how an architect uses conduction to determine eco-friendly materials.

## Preface

5 minutes

This investigation is intended to be a part of my lesson Designing an Eco Friendly Building, which introduces the idea of heat transfers in architecture. My students research eco friendly materials and have background information useful in this investigation.

If you would like to use this as a stand alone investigation, I would suggest teaching the lesson Heat Transfer in Architecture, which introduces the concepts of convection, conduction, and radiation as they apply to architecture.

Furthermore, this investigation can be conducted simultaneously with my two other heat transfer investigation lessons: Heat Transfer in Architecture: Convection, and Heat Transfer in Architecture: Radiation. The advantage of doing all three investigations together is there is no need to have multiple testing models. The disadvantage is the safety issue in the Heat Transfer: Convection Investigation. There is a hot plate or a Bunsen Burner so when I run all three at the same time, I devote my energy to the investigation with the largest safety risk.

## Design the Investigation

10 minutes

I continue questioning students, easing them into considering the problem, "I want to find out if time has an effect on the temperature."

I then ask, "What should we measure and how should we record it?" The class begins to understand that we will measure the temperature and the time. I ask, "Which is the dependent/independent variables? What are some constants or controls we should consider?" I use the information the students determine to create the investigation. The first part looks like this:

1. Problem: I want to find out if time has an effect on the temperature.

2. Hypothesis: What do you think?

3. Procedure: Steps to Creating Perfection

• Measure the temperature at 0 seconds.
• Start the heat source.
• Time every 15 seconds for 1 minute.

4. Variables

Independent variable: time

Dependent variable: temperature

Controls/Constants: time is the same for all investigations

## Conduct the Investigation

10 minutes

Before we begin the test I ask the students, "Why is this model not a good example of what will happen in real life?" Groups of students talk together to form an answer. I number each person in the group and ask a random number to stand up and share an answer.  Student answers include, "It's not full size. The hand warmer is not a constant temperature. There are cracks between the house and the top of the boot box. The boot box is full or air, not dirt. "

I give students the Heat Transfer Lab- Conduction, from the last section. I have filled in the sections and made copies for all students to record data. Below is an example of the data table.

Wood                           Metal                                    Glass

 Time Temp Time Temp Time Temp 0 0 0 15 15 15 30 30 30 45 45 45 60-1 minute 60-1 minute 60-1 minute 1:15 1:15 1:15 1:30 1:30 1:30 1:45 1:45 1:45 2:00 minutes 2:00 minutes 2:00 minutes

Students go to the model and begin the tests. They record the temperature and the time. I use a Team Responsibility strategy for collecting data. Groups of students assign each person a task. The tasks are Data Recorders, Timers, and Temperature Recorders. The Timer is responsible for calling out the time. The Temperature Recorder calls out the temperature. The others in the group, Data Recorders are all responsible for writing down the data. When the experiment is over, the Data Recorders share the data with the Timer, and Temperature Recorder.

After the investigation, I use a Sharing Strategy called Stand Up and Share. I ask students to number themselves at the table. I randomly call out a number and that person stands up to share. I use this strategy because the same kids tend to raise their hands. There are lots of students who know the answer and want to share but they need me to give them the opportunity to share what they know. The video below is an example of how I use the Stand Up and Share strategy.

## Write a Conclusion

10 minutes

The conclusion question applies to the design of an eco-friendly home. The question I ask students to answer in the conclusion is, "How does conduction have an impact on the design of a house?" Before students write the conclusion, I review the experiment, "What material heated up the fastest? The slowest?"

There are misconceptions about heat transfer. Students don't know if heat transfer is a good thing or a bad thing. I ask, "Is heat transfer a good thing or a bad thing?" Students discuss the answer in groups of four. My strategy is Random Sharing. I ask students to number one another and then I pick a number to stand up and answer the question. Students must collaborate to make sure everyone knows the answer because no one know who will have to stand up.

We discuss the positive and negative aspects of conduction for architecture. I bring up climate differences to help the students understand how different materials are good at keeping heat out and keeping cold in a building.

Finally, students write their conclusions. I ask students to write a three to five sentence summary. They must use data from the investigation to support their conclusion.

I use a Write to Learn strategy and employ the Common Core standards. I tell students to illuminate me with the scientific intelligence shown in their conclusion. Students are required to use my Word Wall Words. I ask, "Why do you not want to record every temperature in your conclusion? How can we find a way to write the conclusion without recording everything?" They must use the data to answer the conclusion question.