# Day 2-What Happens to Some Forms of Matter When Temperatures Increase and Decrease

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## Objective

SWBAT graph the mass of items before and after changing the temperatures the items are exposed too.

#### Big Idea

Students will write a claim statement using evidence from their adding and removing heat data tables.

## Lesson Overview

5e Lesson Plan Model

Many of my science lessons are based upon and taught using the 5E lesson plan model: Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate. This lesson plan model allows me to incorporate a variety of learning opportunities and strategies for students.  With multiple learning experiences, students can gain new ideas, demonstrate thinking, draw conclusions, develop critical thinking skills, and interact with peers through discussions and hands-on activities.  With each stage in this lesson model, I select strategies that will serve students best for the concepts and content being delivered to them.  These strategies were selected for this lesson to facilitate peer discussions, participation in a group activity, reflective learning practices, and accountability for learning.

Lesson Synopsis

This is day 2 of the The What Happens to To Some Forms of Matter When Temperatures Increase and Decrease? lesson.  I engage students in a guided discussion recapping yesterday's station investigation.  Students use their data table and graph the mass before and after heat is added. They continue by analyzing the graph and construct a written responses to questions in their interactive notebook. After completing an analysis, I have students share their graphs, evidence to show that the mass in matter does not change when heat is added or removed.  At the end of class, I collect student notebooks to use as a formative assessment and check for student understanding.

Next Generation Science Standards

This lesson will address the following NGSS Standard(s):

PS 1-3 Make observations and measurements to identify materials based on their properties.

PS 1-2 Measure and graph the weights of the substance before and after a phase change to provide evidence that regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating or cooling, the total weight of matter is conserved.

Scientific & Engineering Practices

Students are engaged in the following Scientific and Engineering Practices

4.) Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Students use the data in their table to graph the effects adding and removing heat has upon the mass of objects.

6.) Constructing Explanations: Students use evidence from their data table support their conclusion about the effect of heat on materials. They determine that adding and removing heat does not change the mass materials.

Crosscutting Concepts

The What Happens to To Some Forms of Matter When Temperatures Increase and Decrease? lesson will correlate to other interdisciplinary areas.  These Crosscutting Concepts include:

2.) Cause and Effect:  Students conclude the effects of added and removed heat on different materials.

6.) Structure and Function: Students develop an understanding that heat added and then removed has different effects on the structure of an object and its function.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Disciplinary Core Ideas within this lesson include:

PS1.A Structure of Matter:  Matter of any type can be subdivided into particles that are too small to see, but even then the matter still exists and can be detected by other means.  A model showing that gases are made from the matter of particles that are too small to see and are moving freely around in space can explain many observations.

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Classroom Management

Importance of Modeling to Develop Student

Responsibility, Accountability, and Independence

Depending upon the time of year, this lesson is taught, teachers should consider modeling how groups should work together; establish group norms for activities, class discussions, and partner talks.  In addition, it is important to model think aloud strategies.  This sets up students to be more expressive and develop thinking skills during an activity.  The first half of the year, I model what group work and/or talks “look like and sound like.”  I intervene the moment students are off task with reminders and redirecting.  By the second and last half of the year, I am able to ask students, “Who can give of three reminders for group activities to be successful?” Who can tell us two reminders for partner talks?”  Students take responsibility for becoming successful learners.  Again before teaching this lesson, consider the time of year, it may be necessary to do a lot of front loading to get students to eventually become more independent and transition through the lessons in a timely manner.

EXPLORE TEAMS (Pre-Set)

For time management purposes, I use “lab rats roles” I introduce these roles this at the beginning of the year. I model each role and provide students' opportunities to practice each role with a group during an investigation or lab.  It has proven successful within my classroom keeping students engaged and on task.

Each student has a number on the back of his or her chair, 1,2,3,4 (students sit in groups of 4)and displayed on the board.  For each explore activity, I switch up the roles randomly so students are experiencing different task responsibilities which include: Director, Materials Manager, Reporter, and Technician.  It makes for smooth transitions and efficiency for set up, work, and clean-up.

## Engage/Guided Discussion

15 minutes

Guided Discussion

I begin with a guided discussion after our inquiry on adding and removing heat from matter.  I ask students to examine their data recorded in the table on the effect of heat on some materials of matter.

I lead them into a class discussion about the changes they observed:

~What kinds of effects did you notice when heat was added? and removed?

I am looking for students to recall how adding heat only affected some materials and removing heat changed the structure of some materials.  I want them to conclude that some items like butter, chocolate, and crayons change from a solid to a liquid when heated. When the particles are heated, they become softened and lose their own shape, thus becoming a liquid. Likewise, ice also becomes liquid when heated, however, it does not get softened, it changes right into a liquid. While other materials' form and structure, like a penny, do not change at all when heated.

Using Data to Draw Conclusions

I direct my students to look at their investigations and, pointing to the data (their observations) in the table, I continue saying, “Let’s use our findings to make inferences and draw conclusions about our results before we create a bar graph to represent them."

~What happened to the chocolate, butter, and crayons when they were heater?  How about when they were cooled?

~What happened to the ice cube when it was heated and then cooled?  How does this compare with what happened to the chocolate and crayons?

~Based on your data, does heat have the same effect on all materials? Explain.

As a class we develop an understanding that heat can cause changes to matter; however, changes do not happen exactly the same way to each item.  Some materials like chocolate, butter, and crayons change slowly from a solid to liquid. They get softer over a period of time before turning into a liquid. Whereas, some materials like ice, change quickly from a solid to a liquid. And with some materials like a penny, heat will cause the temperature of this material to rise, however, the material does not change. Furthermore, we discussed how just because you remove the heat from the material, the material does not revert to its original form. In some cases, like the butter, it remained a softened material and could not hold its original shape. On the other hand, the chocolate and crayons became solids again, but took the shape of the container it had melted in. In regards to the ice, removing heat did not change it back to a solid (ice). While we removed heat, it was still exposed to room temperature and in order for water to turn to ice, temperatures would have to be below 32°F (which students know from a previous lesson).

## Elaborate

30 minutes

With prepared data tables, I discuss with my students how graphing data is a way to visually represent data from the table to interpret it. I tell them we are creating a bar graph to compare the masses of these items before heating and after.  I explain how to go about creating a bar graph. We talk about needing a scale to represent the mass of the items before and after, along with titles, and a key, which is similar to map keys we often seen in social studies.

I use the document camera to guide and model for students how to create a graph using the criteria above. They create this graph in their interactive notebook. First, I ask them to use a ruler to draw the x-axis(horizontal) and y-axis (vertical). Then we carefully plot the number scale along the y-axis. I talk with them about how to determine a number scale according to the data and give it the title________. We examine the mass of items and figure out a scale to increase in____ increments.  Next, I explain how to graph the data and label it to show the mass .

We do the before mass data together as a model so they understand how to create the graph with the remaining data. While they are working on their graphs I move around and check in with students. By checking in, I can quickly assess how they doing and note any misconceptions or struggles.

## Evaluate

30 minutes

Analyzing the Graph and Data

Upon completing their graphs, I ask students to interpret the data they have represented by asking the following questions:

1. What conclusion can you draw based on your data?

2. Did any errors or other factors affect the outcome of your results?

I instruct them to write responses in their interactive notebook. I remind them to construct explanations with complete sentences and include evidence to support their way of thinking.  I want them to develop good sentence structure and fluency so their scientific way of thinking is presented clearly and thoroughly.  I differentiate this by providing sentence starters or frames for my English language learners and/or special education students.

With time remaining, I have students share aloud using the document camera to display their graph and written responses. I ask other students to analyze what they notice about another student's graph. Many students noted that the mass remained the same whether we added heat or removed it.  In a few graphs that showed changes in mass, students noted that it was the result of measuring error; either the scale did not get reset to zero or students did not subtract the mass of the ramekin in order to get the true mass of the object. This indicates they are aware human error can impact results and conclusions.