Day 1- What Happens to Some Forms of Matter When Temperatures Increase and Decrease? (Cornerstone)

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Objective

SWBAT describe how adding and removing heat causes some matter to change from one form to another.

Big Idea

Students investigate how adding and removing heat changes the composition of some materials of matter.

Lesson Overview

5e Lesson Plan Model

Many of my science lessons are based upon and taught using the 5E lesson plan model: Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate. This lesson plan model allows me to incorporate a variety of learning opportunities and strategies for students.  With multiple learning experiences, students can gain new ideas, demonstrate thinking, draw conclusions, develop critical thinking skills, and interact with peers through discussions and hands-on activities.  With each stage in this lesson model, I select strategies that will serve students best for the concepts and content being delivered to them.  These strategies were selected for this lesson to facilitate peer discussions, participation in a group activity, reflective learning practices, and accountability for learning.

Lesson Synopsis

The What Happens to Matter When Adding and Removing Heat? takes place over the course of two days or two class periods.  In day 1 of this lesson, students begin by activating their prior knowledge about heat sources around them by taking part in the Meet and Greet Strategy. Students are given a card displaying a word and picture of a source of heat. They interact with other students with different cards and discuss the source of heat.  The lesson continues with a round of stations. Students make predictions, observations, and draw conclusions when applying heat to a variety of items. After completing stations, students reflect in writing on their experiences using the rerun strategy and their interactive notebook. At the end of class, I collect student notebooks to use as a formative assessment and check for student understanding.

Next Generation Science Standards  

This lesson will address the following NGSS Standard(s): 

PS 1-3 Make observations and measurements to identify materials based on their properties. 

PS 1-2 Measure and graph the weights of the substance before and after a phase change to provide evidence that regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating or cooling, the total weight of matter is conserved.

Why do I teach with this lesson?

I teach the What Happens to Matter When Adding and Removing Heat lesson with guided inquiry activities to help students develop inquiry skills as they are investigating. Many of my student have very limited background in science as the elementary school's within my district do not formally teach science prior to my students entering the 5th grade (the middle school). I find it important to provide guided inquiries that build their vocabulary and understanding of concepts in order to facilitate scientific thinking for future inquiry lessons related to the Structure and Properties of Matter. In this lesson students investigate how heat affects different states of matter by adding and removing it to specific forms of matter. By exposing and engaging students with activities to change states of matter, I am providing them with a foundation that will support their experiences in later lessons involving structures of matter, interactions of matter, and chemical reactions of matter. 

 Scientific & Engineering Practices

Students are engaged in the following Scientific and Engineering Practices

2.) Developing and using models: Students use a thermometer to accurately measure containers of water with different temperatures.

3.) Planning and Carrying Out Investigations: Student investigate how matter changes by adding and removing heat to various objects.

Crosscutting Concepts

The What Does Temperature Have to Do With It? lesson will correlate to other interdisciplinary areas.  These Crosscutting Concepts include:

2.) Cause and Effect:  Students observe the effects of added and removed heat on different materials.

6.) Structure and Function: Students learn that heat added and then removed has different effects on the structure of an object and its function. 

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Disciplinary Core Ideas within this lesson include:

PS1.A Structure of Matter:  Matter of any type can be subdivided into particles that are too small to see, but even then the matter still exists and can be detected by other means.  A model showing that gases are made from the matter of particles that are too small to see and are moving freely around in space can explain many observations.

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Classroom Management

Importance of Modeling to Develop Student 

Responsibility, Accountability, and Independence 

Depending upon the time of year, this lesson is taught, teachers should consider modeling how groups should work together; establish group norms for activities, class discussions, and partner talks.  In addition, it is important to model think aloud strategies.  This sets up students to be more expressive and develop thinking skills during an activity.  The first half of the year, I model what group work and/or talks “look like and sound like.”  I intervene the moment students are off task with reminders and redirecting.  By the second and last half of the year, I am able to ask students, “Who can give of three reminders for group activities to be successful?” Who can tell us two reminders for partner talks?”  Students take responsibility for becoming successful learners.  Again before teaching this lesson, consider the time of year, it may be necessary to do a lot of front loading to get students to eventually become more independent and transition through the lessons in a timely manner.


EXPLORE TEAMS (Pre-Set)

For time management purposes, I use “lab rats roles” I introduce these roles this at the beginning of the year. I model each role and provide students' opportunities to practice each role with a group during an investigation or lab.  It has proven successful within my classroom keeping students engaged and on task.

Each student has a number on the back of his or her chair, 1,2,3,4 (students sit in groups of 4)and displayed on the board.  For each explore activity, I switch up the roles randomly so students are experiencing different task responsibilities which include: Director, Materials Manager, Reporter, and Technician.  It makes for smooth transitions and efficiency for set up, work, and clean-up. 

Engage

10 minutes

I begin today's lesson by bringing the students attention to the board for the posted question: "What is heat? Where does it come from?" I start off with this question because students are using a variety of heat sources today to predict, observe, and conclude how adding and removing heat changes matter.  

I explain, "Today we are taking a closer look at heat by investigating how adding it and removing it changes different kinds of matter. Let's begin with some heat sources that we experience in some way in everyday life by taking part in a meet and greetI am handing out one card to each person (tell them to keep it face down) and you have a minute to think about this heat source and how it effects matter."

I continue, "After thinking about the heat source you have been given, you are going to walk around the room and introduce yourself as that heat source to another student and engage in a polite conversation about each other's heat source. You are assuming the role of that heat source and your conversation centers around you sharing who you are with the other person. You are also learning about the other heat source person so be sure to ask questions. As I walk around, I should hear polite conversations." (I model this with another student) and say "You can use the sentence frame from the board to help you form your thinking.  

  • First person to initiate the conversation should start with: 'Greetings, I am ________(name your heat source).'  
  • Reply back: Greetings, ______, I am ________.
  • Then engage in a conversation about where the heat is found and some ways it affects materials of matter. You can find me_______, some ways I affect other objects are ___________.'  Respond to any questions the other student asks you. 

 

Each conversation should only be around 30 seconds. The idea is to go around the room meeting and greeting all the other heat sources

I selected the meet and greet strategy to activate students prior knowledge about heat sources and engage them. A meet and greet gives students a chance to share their initial thoughts about a topic. Then, as they meet/greet other "heat sources" (students) listen to other source  It's a opportunity to for students to think about what they already know and make connections to other ideas presented.

Once the meet and greet ends ends,  we reconvene as a whole class. I guide them through a conversation about the heat sources they met. We talk about the similarities and differences between them.

Explore

35 minutes

Preparing to Investigate

After identifying sources of heat in our lives, I hand out a data table and instruct students to paste it in their interactive notebook on the left side. Noting that everyone set up their notebook, I move students' attention to the standards board and call on one student to read it aloud:

"Today we will explore how adding and removing heat causes some materials to change form by rotating through four stations and examining these changes." After reading it out loud, I bring their attention to the five stations set up around the room: Chocolate, Butter, Penny, Ice Cube, and Crayon. I tell them they are working with their group as lab rats at the first four stations and the fifth station, crayons, is a demonstration conducted by the teacher.

I use these objects because adding heat only changes some of them and removing heat does not bring the object back to its original form.

Guided Inquiry

I begin at the Chocolate Station. I explain that groups are to follow the station card directions starting with making observations, measuring the mass, writing predictions about the chocolate before adding heat to it. They are recording these thoughts in the data table in the notebook. After, the lab rats director has someone place the chocolate (keeping in the ceramic ramekin) in the mini-crockpot. While students wait a couple of minutes, they are sharing their predictions with each other. Once a couple of minutes have passed, students make observations on heats effect upon the chocolate and remeasure the mass of it. They write these details down on their data table in the interactive notebook. Then students write a prediction as to what happens to the object when heat is removed.  I tell them they are returning to that station after some time has passed to observe the changes, and record these findings.  

Next, I move onto to the Butter Station and review the station card directions out loud. I reiterate that the station begins with making observations and predictions about the butter before adding heat to it and recording them on the data table in the interactive notebook. In addition, I remind them to use the scale to measure the mass of the butter before heating it. After they have completed these tasks, I place the butter in the microwave. When it is done, I take it out and place it in front of the students and ask them to write down their observation or experiences on the data table. They are instructed to remeasure the mass since heat has been added.  Then students write a prediction as to what happens to the object when heat is removed.  I tell them they are returning to that station after some time has passed to observe the changes, and record these findings.  

Following the previous station, I shift students attention to the Penny Station. I go over the directions on the card starting with making observations and predictions about the penny before adding heat to it and recording the mass of it.  They write these thoughts in the data table in the notebook. After their observation and predictions, groups place the penny in a ceramic ramekin  and place it on the mug warmer (with teacher supervision). After a few minutes, students write down their observation or experience on the data table about the penny while under heat and remeasure the mass of it. Then students write a prediction as to what happens to the object when heat is removed.  I tell them they are returning to that station after some time has passed to observe the changes, and record these findings.  

I direct students to the Ice Cube Station I explain to students they are exploring to see how ice changes when heat is added and removed from it. I review the directions on the station card, beginning with making observations and predictions about the ice cube before adding heat to it and recording these thoughts in the data table in the notebook. I remind them part of their observation is also recording the mass of the ice before adding heat to it. After their observations and predictions, the director has a group member place the ice in the ramekin and then on the mug warmer. While waiting a few minutes, they write down their observation or experience on the data table about the ice cube while under heat.  Then students write a prediction as to what happens to the object when heat is removed.  I tell them they are returning to that station after some time has passed to observe the changes, and record these findings.  

For the last one, the Crayon Station, I gather the class for a demonstration on how adding heat and taking away heat changes the crayons. I go over the procedure I am doing so they can follow along.  First, I ask groups to making observations and predictions about the crayons before I add heat to it and recording these thoughts in the data table in the notebook. I ask a volunteer to measure the mass of the crayons before I add the heat. After their observations and predictions, I use a hair dryer as my source of heat and hold it against the crayons. They write down their observations or experience on the data table about the crayons while under heat.   Then students write a prediction as to what happens to the object when heat is removed.  I tell them they are returning to that station after some time has passed to observe the changes, and record these findings.  

Once all stations are reviewed, I direct each group to a station and tell them to begin. I give them about ten minutes at each station and use a timer to keep everyone on task. Students follow the directions at each station and all observations are recorded on the data table that applies to that station. They continue exploring how adding heat and removing heat changes the objects at each station.  I continue moving throughout the room and checking in at different stations.

At the end of our investigation, I direct students to return to their original station. I guide them back through the stations for a quick observation of what the cooled item and ask them to record what they notice about the object.  

Reflect on Day 1

15 minutes

At the end of the stations on adding and removing heat, students return to their interactive notebook to complete the RERUN Strategy about their experiences that day.

I remind them of writing expectations during a reflection or question/ answer assignment. Each response must have incorporate the TTQA method, which stand for Turn The Question Around. I use this method to help my students write in complete sentences in many assignments.  We review the question words, explain and describe, noting what kind of information these words are asking for in their written piece.  

Students work on the RERUN with the remaining time in class.  Any unfinished work is assigned as homework and due the next day.

Recall: Summarize in your own words what you did in today's stations

Explain:  Explain the purpose of the activities.

Results:   Describe the result of the activity and what they mean.

Uncertainties:  Describe what you are still unsure about.

New:  Write at least 2 new things that you learned from this lab

 

The “RERUN” strategy is designed to facilitate reflection on learning experiences.  It is an opportunity to determine students' understanding of the concept of adding and removing heat.

I use this as a formative assessment to determine students level of understanding.