I start each math lesson with a Problem of the Day. I use the procedures outlined here on Problem of the Day Procedures.
Today's Problem of the Day:
Jim collects 2 balls at recess. The teacher gives him 6 more. How many balls does Jim have now?
I set this problem up with some structure to help the students organize their thinking. I give a blank line to remind students to write their answer. I also include a picture of a ball with infinite cloner turned on. If you do not have a SMART Board, you can use the PDF and manipulatives, pictures or students drawings.
Since we do this whole group, I have one student come up and do this problem. I remind the student to check their work when they are finished and have the class tell if they agree or disagree by showing a thumbs up or thumbs down.
I start this by reading Domino Addition by Lynette Long, Ph.D. In this book, students are able to see addition equations written vertically and horizontally. I do not read the whole book but rather focus on showing the plus sign and how it shows that we are adding the two numbers together. See how I used the book here.
I then give two students papers with dots on them that look similar to the dots on a domino. I have them stand in the front of the room. I hand another student a paper with a plus sign and place that student in between the others.
This is a plus sign. It is the symbol that we use to show that we are adding. We read this as 5 plus 3. (I have the students turn their dot papers over to show a number) This is kind of like a sentence that we use in reading, but it is a sentence with numbers. A number sentence is called an equation. Just like a sentence in reading, the parts need to be in the correct place for it to make sense. We need to keep the plus sign between the two numbers that we are adding. We put the answer to the right. In addition we call the answer the sum.
Count the pictures. Write the numbers and plus sign to complete each equation.
The first thing the directions tell you to do is count the pictures and write the number to complete each equation. You also need to write the plus sign. For the first few questions, the plus sign is there and you just need to trace it.
We work through this paper together. For these equations the equal sign is replaced with the word is. When we read the equations we use the word is instead of equals. I do this today to keep the students focused on the plus sign. Many students get confused about which symbol is the plus sign and which is the equal sign early on, so I like to teach them on different days. I walk around and make sure that students are correctly counting and writing their equations. When students are finished with their paper, they can put it in the basket and get their center.
The centers for this week are:
I quickly circulate to make sure students are engaged and do not have any questions about how to complete the centers. I pull two or three groups during centers and work with them depending on the time they need (5 - 10 minutes).
Today I am focusing on addition with all of the groups. We are working on writing equations. I verbally give the group an equation. I have them write it and then solve it using manipulatives. With students who are able to do this easily, I also have them try with drawing pictures instead of manipulatives.
Prior to clean up, I check in with each table to see how the centers are going. My students have been struggling with getting cleaned up quickly and quietly after centers. Lately I have been using counting down from 20 slowly instead of a clean up song. Counting backwards is as critical as counting up. Students need to be able to know the number that comes before, as well as after, any given number (w/i 10, w/i 20, etc.). Counting back is a critical strategy for subtraction.
The students like to count backwards with me as they clean up and I can lengthen or reduce the clean up time based on how students are doing and how much time we have.
To close, I put a student's paper on the document camera a project it on the SMART Board and have that student explain their work. I have the class read the equation using the word plus. I mention positive things noticed during centers as well as something that needs to be better next time.
I review what we did during our whole group lesson. "Today we learned about the symbol that is used in an equation to show we are adding. Tomorrow we are going to learn about another important symbol that will make our equations complete!"