Students completed the assessment for the money and place value unit and for most students making change was still difficult. Today I want to take a step back and have students visualize what we are doing when we count change so we are going to use dimes and pennies in ten frames to count change from $1.00.
I bring all the students to the rug and hand them each 2 ten frames. I also put out dimes and pennies on the rug. I tell students that today we are going to count change together using the ten frames. I know this will be easy for some and a bit harder for others, but I want them to really see what they are trying to do when they count back change.
I put a drawing of a balloon on the easel with a 57 cent price tag. I tell students that they are selling this to me, but I only have a dollar (I hold up a dollar bill.)
I ask them to take pennies and fill in seven cents. Now I ask them to take dimes on the other frame and fill in 50 (5 dimes). Now I tell them that is the price so how can we count up to my 1 dollar or 100 pennies using the tens frame? (fill in with pennies) How many do we need? (3) ok so if we fill in that frame we have another ten so lets hold those 3 pennies aside so we don't forget them and place another dime on the frame to represent the 10 pennies. Students are familiar with trading so this idea of putting the 3 pennies aside and then putting on the dime seemed natural to them. How many more dimes do we need to fill up the frame? (4) ok so if we take the 4 dimes and the 3 pennies to give back as change, how much is that altogether? (43 cents). Students have had experience using the tens frames so I expect them to be able to see that they now have 43 cents by looking at their two frames. If not, I might ask them, ok so we have dimes on one frame and pennies on the other. How does that help us make change? ( we started with the price and counted up to the dollar and those 43 cents are the coins we counted up with so those would be our change). I might remind students of the equation we worked with several days ago where price + change = a dollar.
Since this is an whole-class activity, next time I might use 10 ten frames and have the students build 57 cents using pennies. BUT, after they fill the first ten frame with pennies, I would ask them how much do they have and how much do they need? Is there a faster way than counting out all 57 with pennies? This would get them to realize that it would be faster to count by dimes to 50. I would help them to remove the 10 pennies and just put a single dime on the then frame. Put dimes on 4 more ten frames so you have 50 cents. Then put the 7 pennies in the next ten frame. It should then be easy to see that we need to fill 4 more ten frames (4 dimes) plus 3 pennies to equal $1.
I repeat this process several more times to make sure students understand how to count up with pennies and dimes.
Now I partner students up and post pictures of several objects. I ask them to work on the rug to take turns making change from $1.00 for each object pictured.
I circulate around to each group making sure students have the idea of making change with a ten's frame.
I bring students back together and ask them for a thumbs up of whether they are comfortable making change from $1.00. If students are mostly comfortable and I have seen each student complete the task correctly, I move on to more than $1.00. If most students are not comfortable, I work with the whole group to count change from $1.00 together.
I want students to continue to use the actual coins for counting. I do not expect them to be able to make change without coins, although I know that some students will be able to do this independently by drawing coin symbols.
At this point I split the class in groups. One group returns to their seats and continues to use the ten's frames as we have been doing. I post several pictures of items for them to make change from a dollar.
For those that were able to easily make change I have them stay with me and say, what if I have $5.00 to pay for an object that is only 98 cents. What would I do? I ask them to fill in 98 cents on their ten frames. How much more do I need to fill the whole frame? (2 cents). Ok so if I add 2 cents I now have how much? ($1.00). How many more dollars do I need to get to 5? (4)
I repeat this process with an object that is $1.96. We count up to the next dollar and also put the 1.00 down next to the frames. How many dollars do I have already? (2). How many more do I need to get to $5.00? (3)
We do several more of these as a group, with students counting out the pennies and dimes on their ten frames.
If I feel that students are ready, I have them go off in groups of 2 to practice making change to $5.00.
I ask students to return to their desks. I invite them to take the ten's frames with them. I draw 2 objects on the board and put a price of 64 cents on one and $2.76 on the other. I put a $1.00 bill above the 64 cents and a $5.00 bill above the $2.76. I ask them to find the change for each item and record it on their paper.
As students are working, I move about the room looking at which students are using the tens frames, and which are doing the work without the use of the ten's frame. I also look at those who are proficient with amounts less than $1.00, but become confused with amounts over $1.00. I collect the papers to document how students are doing with making change using a tens frame. This quick assessment will be one piece of evidence for documenting how well students solve change problems involving dollars and cents. (2MD. C.8.)