My students are currently studying Japan. They are involved in a special Japan week. It is important to immerse students in the Japanese lessons so we begin by writing and saying the numbers to ten. My goal here is to introduce students to the Japanese counting system which is place value based (i.e. when they say eleven they say ten-one (ju-ichi), twenty one is 2-ten-one or ni- ju-ichi, 200 is 2-hundred or ni-hyaku. This provides a review of place value to 999 (common core standard 2NBT.A.3 ) while introducing the Japanese language.
I write the words "Number", "Character", and "Word" across the top of the board. I write the number 1, the Japanese character for one Japanese numbers.pdf and the word "ichi" (one). The students copy this on their paper. I continue with 2 - 10.
We practice counting out loud to 10.
Now I say a number in Japanese and the children call it out in english.
I tell students that they will need this chart in the next part of the lesson.
I leave the numbers 1 - 10 written on the board. Now I start a new display and across the top I write sen (thousand) and the character, hyaku (100 ) and the character, ju (10) and Ichi (1). I ask students to make a chart on the back of their papers. (I might use a second sheet next time so students do not have to keep turning the paper over and over. )
I demonstrate saying I put a san(3) in the hyaku (100) place, a qu (9) in the sen (1,000) place, a nana(7) in the ju place and a she(4) in the ichi place. I write them in the chart under the correct heading. Here I encourage children to write the numbers not the characters, but I tell them that they may write both. The reason is that I want them to be able to read the number back in english and if they have written just the characters, this may be very difficult. Now I read my number in english. I ask students the value of the 9 (9 tens or 90), the 3 (3,000) to review that each number stands for so many groups of ones, tens, hundreds or thousands.
Together we read the number slowly in JapaneseCounting Example saying qu-sen, san hyaku, nana-ju, she. I remind students that the Japanese say their tens by saying (in this case) seven-ten instead of a whole new word as we do (seventy).
Now I do several examples for them to try. After each one, I ask for a volunteer to come up and write the number for us in numbers not characters. We read it together in English and Japanese. I also ask about the value of the digits.
I do the first 3 in order of the places 1000, 100, 10 1, and then mix up the places (such as 100, 1, 10, 1000) so students do not just write the numbers in order.
1. san in the issen, go in the hyaku, rocku in the ju, and ni in the ichi
2. qu in the issen, nana in the hyaku, she in the ju and go in the ichi
3. hachi in the issen, she in the hyaku, ni in the ju and ichi in the ichi
4. qu in the ichi, san in the hyaku, rocku in the issen and san in the ju
5. qu in the hyaku, san in the ichi, she in the ju and go in the issen
(I do not add the words "in the ..... place" in Japanese because the numbers are confusing enough by themselves.)
I ask students if they are ready to add in Japanese? I use this as an opportunity to review expanded form with the students.
For the first one I demonstrate writing out the equation as I say qu hyaku (nine hundreds) plus san ju (3 tens) plus she (four) = 934.
I review what I just did and then ask students if they are ready to add on their own. I tell them that I will say the 3 numbers, they should write them down and then find the total. It should look familiar. What have we done that looks like what is on the board? (expanded form). So today we will use expanded form as we write and add our numbers in Japanese.
I remind students that the Japanese read their numbers ___ hundred, ___ten, one or 500 6 ten 4 to mean 564.
I give on example at a time and then ask for a volunteer to come up and write the number on the board. We read the number in English and Japanese.
1. san hyaku (300) plus hachi ju (80) plus go (5) (385)
2. ni hyaku (200) plus san ju (30) plus ni (2) (232)
3. she hyaku (400) plus go ju (50) plus rocku (6) (456)
4. nana hyaku (700) plus she ju (50) plus ni (2) (752)