Text Structures: Time to write – Cause and Effect

Print Lesson


SWBAT apply their understanding of the Cause and Effect Text Structure by using it to write a paragraph.

Big Idea

Continuing the study of Text Structures with a focus on writing


This is day fouteen of a four week unit where students will first become familiar with the five Text Structures, then identify each of them in new text, and finally apply each of them in their writing. In this phase of the unit, students have had exposure to the definition of Text Structures and have identified them within new text. Therefore, they are ready to write their own examples, which will be compiled into their very own “Scholastic News – Text Structures Edition” as a final product for the unit. After identifying each, this is the next stage of the scaffolding process: application.


10 minutes

Connection: I always start by connecting today’s lesson to something kids have previously learned so that it triggers their schema and background knowledge. Since they’ve been working on Text Structures for several weeks, I remind them that a Text Structure is how the information within a written text is organized. 


Teaching Point: This is when I tell kids explicitly what we will be working on. I say, “Today, you will do your writing for the Cause and Effect portion of your very own Scholastic News. You’ve already planned your topic and now it is time to turn the idea into a high quality, detailed paragraph that is organized in a way that shows a cause and one or more effects. Here is my example. Keep in mind that my Scholastic News is going to be all about exercise.” Show my example:


Exercise is the most important thing you can do to keep your mind and body healthy. When you exercise, you get lots of energy that will keep you alert and focused throughout the day. Studies have shown that getting exercise on a regular basis will help you sleep better at night. Being active through sports and other activities can help you lose weight and reduce the risk of potential problems such as high blood pressure and diabetes.  Therefore, exercising will provide you with many benefits that will enhance your life.


Active Engagement: This is where students get to try out the strategy that we are working on. I ask them to think about the idea they chose for Cause and Effect and talk through what they will write with their partners. Then I call on a few students to share with the whole group.


Link to Ongoing Work: During this portion of the mini-lesson, I give the students a task that they will focus on during Independent Reading time. Now that they’ve talked through their idea, their job is to write it in paragraph form in their Reader’s Notebooks as a rough draft. They need to make sure to include a cause and one or more effects within their paragraph so it matches the Cause and Effect Text Structure. 

Guided Practice

45 minutes

Transition Time: Every day after the mini-lesson, students get 5 minutes of Prep Time to choose new books (if needed), find a comfy spot, use the bathroom, and anything else they might need to do to prepare for 40 minutes of uninterrupted Independent Reading.  


Guided Practice: Today, I would be conferencing with students right at their comfy spots and asking them to share their topic of choice. I will help them craft their paragraph for the Cause and Effect Text Structure if they need it.


5 minutes

At the end of 40 minutes, I remind students that their job during reading time was to complete a paragraph using the Cause and Effect Text Structure about something related to their main topic. Once students gather at the carpet with their assignment, we share some of their writing. I then tell them that we will continue our Text Structure work tomorrow. Reader’s Workshop has come to an end.