Materials: fraction Bars
equal parts- sections of a figure that are the same size.
Fraction- A number that names a part of a whole or a part of a group.
To get started I open with a little math talk to connect students to the importance of this lesson. I ask if any of them have ever shared a sandwich equally with a friend or family member. What fraction of the sandwich do you both get? Several students shout 1/2 of the sandwich. Is your 1/2 of the sandwich larger or smaller than your friend? It is equal. How do you know if a figure is divided into equal parts? Equal parts are parts that are the same size. I point to the fraction bars I have located on my work-cart. Can someone point out the fraction bar that represents 1/2? Several students point to the correct fraction bar, so I feel comfortable enough to continue with this lesson.
I draw the following figures on the board. fraction figures.doc I ask students to write the fraction for the shaded parts.
Some of my students seem to forget to include the shaded parts when recording the number of equal parts. I remind them that the bottom number names the total number of equal parts that make up the figure. Then I ask, what is the whole? (A whole is one complete figure.) Ok! What are the parts? (The equal parts are parts that are the same size.)
To make sure my students fully understand what they will be working on, I use fraction bars to model the first two examples of fractions. As I compare the model on the board to the fraction bar, I discuss the meaning of fractions. Comparing and explaining how the models are equal allows the students to better explain the difference between parts of a whole. I use the last fraction model to invite students to point to the parts that make up each fraction. As they point to the fraction part, I count them aloud and discuss the number of shaded parts and the total number of equal parts. I pause for a second and ask can anyone tell me how to write these numbers to the written fraction. I am overwhelmed with the amount of responses I get from students. I tell students that I want them to explore this a bit more in their assigned groups. I give students about five minutes to get settled into their groups.
MP.4. Model with mathematics.
MP.7. Look for and make use of structure
Materials: pencils, paper, fraction bars
Grouping: assigned small groups
In this portion of the lesson I want my students to spend some time working with fraction bars and discussing how to determine the number of shaded parts and the total number of equal parts. As students are working, I circle the room to direct students’ attention to relating the number of shaded parts and the total of number of equal parts to written fractions.
As I circle from group to group, I guided students through the steps. I ask students to count aloud with me to identify the number of equal parts and the number of shaded parts.
Why do you write 3 on the top part of the fraction?
Three parts are shaded.
What are the shaded parts called?
Why do you write the 4 on the bottom part of the fraction?
There are four equal parts total.
I give students about 15 minutes to work so they can develop their own method of determining parts of a whole. After students have finished working and discussing how to write and determine the parts and the total number of equal parts. I invite them back to the carpet. I ask about two or three students to share out what they noticed during their activity. Some students explained fluently how to identify and write fractions based on the parts and total number of equal parts.
I tell students it is my intentions for them to develop an understanding of how to read and write fractions that name parts of a whole. I ask students how a figure has to be divided for you to be able to name a fraction. (It has to be divided into equal parts.) I stop for a moment here to compare the two fraction models that are equal in size, however, divided into different parts. I ask students to tell me how to write the fractions for each illustration.
In this portion of the lesson, I ask students to move back to their assigned seats. I tell them that they are going to try it on their own to see if they can correctly identify and write parts of a whole.
I encourage struggling students to use fraction bars to help assist them in their learning until they are able to read and write fractions that name part of a whole on their own.
Before students begin I discuss problem 1 on students page with students. I want to make sure all students understand what they will be doing in this independent activity. I ask students, "What do you write for the top number? What is the top number called? The number of parts that are shaded, and it is called the numerator. What do you write for the bottom number? The number of equal parts in all. What is the number of equal parts in all called?" It is called the denominator.
I encourage students to define fraction in their own words before they answer their questions on their own. This will help them take ownership of their own learner.
Students will have about 20 minutes or so to complete their assignment. As students are working, I circle the room to reinforce the purpose of fraction bars, identifying and writing fractions. I take note of students response to determine if students were successful, or if this particular skill needs to be retaught in a smaller group setting. When students have completed their assignment, I invite them back to the carpet to discuss and share what they learned.
*Remember that when students share and discuss their work, they become confident problem solvers.