When you are teaching cause and effect you are teaching an important comprehension skill. Besides that though, you are exposing your students to the craft and structure of the writing itself. In my classroom, we discuss what choices the author made in order to create the events in the story. This is a shift in the Common Core standards - to actually think about the decisions that the author made in order to create the piece. I taught this lesson in April. I'm now beginning to think about how to get my class ready for 2nd grade. When we talk about the decisions an author makes and how they structure a story, we are already beginning to lay the foundation for RL2.5 - Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action.
You will see my class discuss the story in depth. I pose questions to my class and we discuss both as partners and have a whole class discussion. This addresses standard RL1.1 - Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. As students discuss parts of the text, they will begin to understand that all the interactions of the characters are interrelated. It's almost like the domino effect. Once one event starts, it triggers other events. When we discuss these cause and effect relationships we address standard RL1.2 - Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson. Finally, when we discuss what the characters are doing, and how they are acting and discuss the events in the story using key details we address standard RL1.3 - Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.
Just as I did in the previous day's lessons, I assigned new partners and seats. In case you've missed any of the grouping resources here they are once again - PartnerPickingCards, fun ways to group students, and sorting sticks. Once students were settled I stated the objective and overview. I said, "Just as we've done the last two days we are going to be identifying the cause and effects in the third part of the story. We'll record our information on the multi-flow map and then answer our questions. Let's get started."
I turned to slide 17 on the Smartboard lesson. I said, "We are going to be identifying an effect of what happens as a result of Tommy ducking. Listen carefully for the effect as I read this page." I read page 16 of the story. Even though the focus of the lesson is on cause and effect, I wanted to address the vocabulary word "ducking". I said, Before we talk about the effect let's talk about what ducking means. Sometimes the illustration can tell us the meaning of words. Look at the picture closely. What is Tommy doing in the illustration that can help you understand what the word ducking means? That's right he's squatting down. Can everyone duck for me?" Then I had students act out ducking. This took about 30 seconds but is very valuable in aiding students to comprehend a story. Then I said, " I want you to discuss with your partner what the effect was as a result of Tommy ducking." Partners discussed the effect and then we had a class discussion. I said, " Turn to page 9 in your packet. Write the effect of what happened as a result of Tommy ducking on your multi-flow map."
I turned to slide 18 on the Smartboard lesson. I said, "Three effects happen as a result of Marianne getting hit in the face with an egg. Listen carefully as I read the next few pages." I read to page 20. Then I said, "Discuss the three effects of what happened as a result of Marianne getting hit in the face with an egg." We had both a partner and class discussion and then students recorded the effects on page 10 of their packets.
Finally, I turned to slide 19 on the Smartboard lesson. I said, "Now we have to identify what caused the farmer's wife to start screaming. Listen carefully as I read the next page." I read page 21. We had both a partner discussion and then when we had a class discussion I said, "How do you know this? It doesn't say in the text why she started screaming? So what you're telling me is that the illustrations carry meaning too?" Then the students recorded the cause on their multi-flow maps on page 11 of their packets. I caught my students in action and made two videos here Discussing Our First Effect - Day 3 Jimmy's Boa, and Discussing Our Second Effect As a Class - Day 3 Jimmy's Boa. I think these videos will give you a good idea of what happened in this portion of the lesson.
I turned to slide 20 on the Smartboard lesson. I said, "All right folks. You now what to do. You know you need to use your multi-flow map as a tool and you know you need to restate the question as the first part of your answer and you need to answer in complete sentences. Let's read our questions together.
1) What happened when Tommy ducked?
2) What happened when Marianne got hit in the face with an egg?
3) Why did the farmer's wife start screaming?
You're questions are on pages 11-12 of your packet. Let's get going."
And just as I've done the last two days, I walked around the room, assisting students if they needed me but stepping back for the most part to let my students take more responsibility with their learning. You can see my students in action here in this video Writing Our Effects and Answering Questions -Day 3 Jimmy's Boa.
If you've read any of my other lessons before, you know I like my lessons to be short, sweet, and to the point. Just like in the previous day's lessons we threw a koosh ball to each other as we simply answered questions about the story. I have a video of my class doing our closure here Our Closure - Day 3 Jimmy's Boa. We need to work on our hand- eye coordination because we are not very good at throwing or catching the ball. I am happy to say that we are much better at answering the questions.