How Many More to 10?

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SWBAT identify how many more it takes to make ten by using two-color counters, a ten-frame, and recording sheet.

Big Idea

Kinders need repeated practice with experiencing combinations that make 10. This lesson is number 7 in a series that allows kids to discover those combinations on their own in a fun and exciting way.

Daily Calendar & Counting Review

15 minutes

Daily calendar is JOYFUL! The kids have fun, learn a lot and look forward to it everyday! They are at a point in the year where I don't even have to encourage the or guide them, they are autonomous. They actually tell me what video comes next!

We concentrate on the kindergarten counting essentials:

Counting to 20:

Counting down from 20

(This skill supports number sense! If a child can count backward and forward, they tend to be much more successful with higher level skills like subtraction.)

Counting by 10's to 100:

Counting by 1's to 100:

Sing, dance and be joyful while learning to count!

Direct Instruction

10 minutes

I read the story, 10 Little Monkeys.

I think aloud the math as I read.

Example: There are 4 monkeys. If I have 4 monkeys I must need (I count on my fingers) 6 more to make 10.  So I still need 6 monkeys!

Of course we never miss an opportunity to sing our pirate addition song, When You Add with a Pirate:


After we sing, we discuss what addition is and what it looks like to add. We discuss the steps involved and create a flow chart. This helps the kids who are still struggling to have a guide.

Once we have discussed addition in general, we then discuss how to find missing addends in addition. We create another flow chart. A couple of kids actually state that they have a new understanding!

We then participate in the rap video below. It's the best! After playing a few times, the kids are getting it!

Why do I teach with so many songs? Because the human brain is complex and we learn better and connect with content better when we learn it to music. You can't just sing the songs alone though. You must discuss the songs and piece out what they are about to bring real meaning to them. The rap song above is about missing addends. We have a discussion about missing addends and why they are important. Knowing what must be added to make 10 is a critical skill area for kinders so they have a foundation to build on. Once they can envision and understand what makes that 10, they are ready to move on to concepts like teen numbers and place value.

Now it's time for guided practice!

Guided Instruction

5 minutes

I guide them through four rounds of play before letting them have full run of the activity on their own. These are practice rounds so they are given fresh recording sheets for the independent practice time.

The recording sheets have an A side and a B side.

Students are paired up. I select the partners and strategically pair them up. There is Partner A and Partner B.

It sounds like this:

Partner A goes first (this is the higher academic achiever in the pair)

1) shake the chip cup

2) GENTLY spill out the chips on the table

3) Place all the red chips in the ten-frame first (left to right, top to bottom like we read)

4) Place all the yellow chips in next

5) record the chip layout on the recording sheet, side A first ten-frame

6) Fill in I have ____(red chips). I need ___(yellow chips).

7) record the corresponding addition equation under the ten-frame ____+_____=10

Pass the materials to Partner B

Independent Practice

15 minutes

The kids are given full run of the activity once I see they are able to carry on without my guidance. I look for things like the kids beginning the next step without my direction, kids getting antsy (the let's go look), and my favorite, whining :).

The partners are given full run while I roam the room supporting or guiding in any way necessary. I also monitor behavior and coaching.

Coaching is when partners assist each other when they see a concern. This is expected to be done respectfully and graciously.


10 minutes

After we clean up our areas (I put on a timer and the kids have an opportunity to earn points towards fun class activities like BINGO), I have the kids gather on the floor and share out what they learned from today's activity.

One student proudly declares that every equation equals 10! It doesn't sound like much, but that is a celebration! The whole point of this series of lessons is to get those kids to understand how many more are needed to make ten.

After a few more observations are shared, we practice showing combinations of ten on our fingers. I say, "If I have 4, how many more do I need to make 10?"

The kids immediately hold of 4 fingers and count the others on their chins.

Note: Two years ago I had a student who was born with 12 fingers, 6 on each hand. It is a genuine medical condition that kids can be born with. Place a piece of bright colored tape or a decorative bandaid on the extra fingers (they are always pinky fingers) and tell the child not to use those fingers, only the main 5 on each hand.

Exit Ticket

5 minutes

The exit ticket is the completed recording sheet. Each sheet has the work done by both partners. I look to see if the understanding is there. If not, I call the student back either one on one or in a small group for reteaching or further guided practice.

Things I look for:

Inaccuracies in representations (equations)

conflict in ten frame representation versus equation

incorrect mathematical thinking (equations with the incorrect sums...they should all be ten)