This lesson aims to deepen students' knowledge about the rhetoric appeal know as Pathos. Students are shown the Pathos Flip Chart. The flip chart gives a student-friendly definition and example, and it helps me assess students' prior knowledge. It also acts as an interest survey by asking students what they would like to learn about Pathos.
Pathos is one of three persuasive strategies in the rhetorical triangle. The other two strategies are Ethos and Logos. The triangle insinuates that balancing logic (logos), ethics (ethos), and emotional appeals (pathos) results in substantiated, convincing arguments. Therefore, this lesson has a connection to our previous lesson on Ethos as well as our future lesson in Pathos.
As we go through the flip chart slides, I asked students to summarize and elaborate on the tier 2 words on slides. I find that asking students to summarize in their own words after I present a concept helps students retain this knowledge. Upholding the rigor of Common Core, I encourage students to increase students' academic vocabularies. Thus, I don't dumb down the wording of my presentations. However, I do explain to students the meaning of these vocabulary words in ways that they can understand.
This activity relates to the standard by encouraging students to support their opinions in written work. Students provide valid reasons through the use of persuasive techniques to sustain their opinions. Therefore, students must use relevant and sufficient evidence to support their claims or opinions.
As in previous lessons, I model a sample persuasive writing to students prior to gradually releasing ownership of this activity to them. Second grade students need concrete examples to understand expectations for this activity. First, we discuss the definition of Pathos and clarify any misconceptions during the discussion. We select a topic to use as a claim from a list of persuasive writing ideas that I give students. Then, I ask students to assist me in completing the Persuasive Writing Graphic Organizer. Once students complete the organizer, I ask students to select only one supportive reason from their list. We draw a picture with a caption that shows our claim with supportive reasoning based on logos strategy. Then we discuss our product (advertisement using pathos). I ask students to select a different topic for their project so that they are not tempted to copy from the model.
I gradually release ownership to students as they work collaboratively in pairs or triads to create an advertisement or propaganda that exemplifies "Pathos". I provide students with a graphic organizer to guide them in the writing process. Students share their ideas within their collaborative team, using digital resources such as websites listing ideas for persuasive topics, access to online search tools, downloaded articles on various persuasive topics, etc. to gather supports for their drawing. I ask students to follow a caption format, by drawing a picture and text description to show an example of Pathos.
I also encourage students to conduct shared research. Working in collaborative groups eases this process since team members support one another. The load of the work is distributed so that students can perform multi-step activities as a team. The roles, rules/expectations, and norms are established with students ensures that each team member contribute to a common goal. I start the collaborative process early in the school year to make sure students know the structure of the learning environment. Having this structure facilitates discussion and building on each other's knowledge.
The focus today is for students to find ways to promote their claim using Pathos. Students have a basic idea from my introductory flip chart and cooperative team information. So, I ask each group to create an example of Pathos by the end of this lesson segment. Students learn to budget their time accordingly. Thus, time management skills are enhanced.
Students proudly displayed their product as they participated in the Pathos Pesentation. They shared with enthusiasm and much more accuracy than I would have expected at their age. As I listen to their oral presentation, I watch and conducted an informal assessment as I listened in on their delivery and elaboration. I follow the guidelines presented in a persuasive writing rubric.
I gave student specific feedback on their presentation as it related to their ideas. Was the idea strongly supported? Did they stay on topic ? Also, I assessed key points and if the supporting facts were convincing. In addition, I discussed with students the importance of voice, word choice, organization, and structure.