Equal Groups (Review)

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Objective

Students will be able to use their math vocabulary and compare groups of objects to decide if they are equal quantities.

Big Idea

Comparing the number of objects in two groups, using one-to one-correspondence, is a foundational skill that students will build on as they begin to compare numbers.

Problem of the Day

5 minutes

I start the lesson with a problem of the day to help students review skills and concepts from prior lessons and develop their ability to problem solve.  I call the students up to the carpet. The students find their spots while saying this chant with me.

Criss cross, applesauce, hands in your lap, eyes on the teacher, you've got to show me that.

I project the Problem of the Day 9 Notebook File on the SMARTBoard and say to students, "This is our Problem of the Day for today.  This says ‘How are these two pictures alike?  How are they different?’" (If you don't have a whiteboard, there is also a Problem of the Day pdf of the slides.)

I have several students share ideas.  If it is not mentioned, I ask students about the number of cookies on the plates.  “Is the number of cookies something that is the same or something that is different?”  (The same.)  “What word can we use when two groups have the same number of objects in them?”  (Equal)

I tell students, "Today we will be looking at more groups of objects and comparing how many are in each group."

Presentation of Lesson

25 minutes

I have students move into a circle and remind them to sit with their bottoms on the hard floor so that there is room for everyone.  I also remind students that when we are doing an activity in the circle, they need to keep their hands to themselves and stay seated so that everyone can see and pay attention.

"Today we are going to compare two groups to decide if the number of objects is equal."

I remind the students that yesterday we compared groups of  stuffed animals, people and classroom objects.  Today we are going to use color tiles.  I place a piece of white construction paper in the middle of the circle to make the color tiles easier to see on our colorful carpet.  I lay down three red color tiles and three green color tiles.  I say, “We need to compare these groups to see if they have the same number of color tiles.”  I push the color tiles together (red to green, red to green, red to green) to show that each has a partner.  I say, “These two groups of color tiles have the same number.  They are equal.”  I pick up the color tiles and lay down three blue color tiles.  I say, “I am going to pick someone with a quiet hand to come up and make a group of yellow color tiles that is equal to this group.”  I choose a student to come up and do so.  I have another student come up and push the color tiles together (blue to yellow, blue to yellow, blue to yellow) to check to see if the two groups are equal.

I tell students, “You are going to go back to your seats and practice this with a partner.  You and your partner need to make two groups that have the same number of color tiles.  Your groups will be equal.”  I call students back to their seats by table.  As I call the tables I designate who will work together (the students seated beside one another).  The color tiles are already in a bin on the middle of the table.  When all of the students are at their seats, I count down from 5 and say “Freeze.”  The students put their hands on their heads and look at me.  (This is a routine we use throughout the day.)  I repeat the directions and then tell the students that they may begin.   I circulate and help pairs who are having trouble.  I make note of these students.  Students who easily complete the activity are asked to do it again with a different number of tiles.   When all pairs have completed the task at least once, I ask all of the student to put their color tiles back into the bin in the center of the table.  I tell students that we will be practicing this on a Same Number Worksheet.  During the activity students practiced one to one correspondence by pairing concrete items.  On the worksheet, they will practice this same skill by drawing lines to connect the objects in the two groups.  One to one correspondence helps students identify groups that have more, less or the same number.  

I show students the paper and say, "We will be doing some of this paper together.  You need to get out your pencil and put your name on your paper.  When your name is on your paper hold your pencil in the air, that will let me know that you are ready to start."  I like to have students hold up their pencils or put their hands on their heads when they are finished with a task.  It makes it easy for me to see who is ready and also keeps the students from writing all over their papers while they wait for other students to finish.  Prior to the lesson, I use a highlighter to write student names on papers for students who are unable to write their name.

I place a stack of papers in the middle of each table.  While the students are writing their names, I turn on the projector and document camera and display the worksheet on the SMARTBoard.  When all students have their pencils up, I say, "The directions on this paper say ‘Draw lines to match the objects in each group.  If the groups are equal, circle all of the objects.  If the groups are not equal, put an X on all of the objects.'"  I tell students to put their pencil point on the first picture of the apple.  I model this on the SMARTBoard.  I model how to draw a line connecting the apple to the first picture of a banana.  I tell the students to continue this with the remaining apples and bananas.  "Do these two groups have the same number of objects?  How do you know?  (It is very important to always ask students how they know. This is where you determine their understanding, and they learn to express and grow their understanding. It also develops understanding.)

"Since the two groups are equal, we need to circle them."  I circulate to make sure the students are connecting only one apple to each banana.  I tell the students to complete number two by drawing a line to connect each horse to a horseshoe.  I call up a student who correctly matched the horses and horseshoes on their paper to connect the horses and horseshoes on the board.  When the student is finished, I ask, "Are these two groups equal?  How do you know?  What do we need to do?"  The groups are not equal.  One horse does not have a horseshoe.  We need to put an X on these groups.  I tell students that they can complete the last question on their own.  I write down the names of the students who were having trouble matching the objects in the two groups to pull during centers.  When the paper is finished, I have students put their pencils away, put their paper in the paper tray and put their heads down.

Practice

20 minutes

I remind students that when we are done our math paper, we do math centers.  I review the rules for centers.  We need to share the materials, work quietly, and keep the materials in the tray until they are being used.  I call up one student from each table to come back and get their center.  This week's centers are:

Sorting Lakeshore Kid Counters in Sorting Circles
Sorting Fruit Loops in Sorting Boxes
Sorting Beans in Cups
Sorting Apples in Sorting Baskets (from www.prekinders.com)
SMART Board- Lakeshore Sorting Adventures Interactive Activities

I circulate through the room to make sure that all of the centers are being done correctly.  When I feel that the students are engaged and completing the centers correctly, I pull a group of students who were having trouble with the one to one correspondence on their worksheets.  I pull the students back to my small group table to do a reteach activity on white boards. I only keep the group for about 10 minutes.  I then check in with each table to see how the centers are going.  When there is five minute left, I count down from 5 and say "Freeze."  When I say this, all students stop what they are doing, put their hands on their heads and look at me.  This is a procedure that we use throughout the day.  I say to students, "You have about five minutes left.  Remember when the clean up song comes on, you need to quietly put all of your materials back in your tray and return it to the math center table.  It needs to be on top of your table number.  If you are sorting apples, you can put your paper on the drying rack to dry."  I let the students work for five more minutes and then turn on Tidy Up by Dr. Jean.  Students clean up and return to their seats.

Closing

5 minutes

I close this lesson by inviting students back up to the carpet.  I turn on the projector and document camera and let one of the students who worked with me at the small group table share his work on the screen.  The students like getting to "Be the teacher" and other students like seeing their classmates' work being projected on the SMART Board.  This also gives a student who was struggling during the original activity time to feel successful in front of the class.  I mention positive things that I noticed during centers.  For today, I mentioned that I liked how students worked quietly.  I also include something that needs to be better next time.  For today, I mentioned that the students need to be sure to pick up materials that fall on the floor.  I review what we did during our whole group lesson.  "Today we compared groups to see if they were equal.  How did we know that the groups were equal?"  (By matching the objects in the groups to see if they had the same number.)  "Tomorrow, we are going to continue to work on comparing groups.”