Students will be able to use probability and statistics to analyze the frequency of letters in the alphabet.

Why use a keyboard that is not the most efficient? Dvorak vs Qwerty

Teaching probability to your class can be a lot of fun because it involves real life manipulatives and activities. In this activity, students figure out the alphabet letters that shows up the most in the English language. One of the best things about this lesson is you can "double dip" into ELA by using something you have already read or having your students read the next chapter in their chapter books. You could teach this lesson thematically along with Ben Franklin and his printing press.

5 minutes

I use an inclusion question to link students previous knowledge and lead them to feel included in their own learning. Since this is lesson number 5 in a series of 5 lessons there is a lot of previous knowledge.

I first ask *"Remember the other day when we explored the concept of probability?" *Heads nod and thumbs go up (a signal I've taught to be used instead of using voices). Next *"Talk at your table about the definition of probability and share one place, outside of school, where you could use probability."* During this time I am listening for good examples/definitions and any misconceptions students may still have about probability.

*"What did we discover about the probability of certain numbers coming up when you roll a pair of dice?"* We found if a sum had a lot of addends it would appear more often. This links them to a specific lesson on probability and gives a scaffold to this lesson.

30 minutes

Tell your students the objective of the lesson in kid friendly language to give them a goal or direction to follow.

*Today we are going to explore the probability of letters in our alphabet being used. We are going to study how often (the frequency) each of the letters appearing in writing. *

*Does anyone have any ideas about how we might do that? Talk for a minute at your tables about what you think.*

Let a number of students share out what they think.

*We are going to follow the scientific process in this lesson. * Review or explain. This gives students a framework for following a process through the lesson. Have your students write their answers down. I use a math journal for this.

*First we start with a question. Which letters appear the most frequently in our English language? *

**Hypothesis **- predict - list the five most common letters used in the English language and put a star by the letter you think will be most common.

*Second prediction - Share your predictions with your group and arrive at one group prediction. *

List the predictions on the board.

5 minutes

Student reflections double retention and can improve behavior. I use three questions based on (1) content/thinking, (2) collaboration, and (3) social interactions. I call it *Reflect 1, 2, 3*.

1. What did you learn about probability from this lesson and how is it different from the other probability lessons?

2. What social skills were needed during this lesson?

3. What did you do to help another person in your group?

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