I begin this lesson by asking the students to recall what they know about reading fluency. In my classroom, we discuss it as reading the way we talk, with accuracy and speed.
Tell the students that their understanding and recall of their basic math facts is called math fact fluency. The reason math fact fluency is important is because when we begin to solve more difficult addition and subtraction problems, the completion of those problems with be easier if they can accurately and quickly recall those facts.
Have the students review what a Friends of Ten Fact is. Have the students listen to the song "Friends of Ten".
Then, make a list of facts on the board as follows Friends of Ten. I teach my students that basic math facts have a sum up to 20. Friends of Ten facts are those that have two addends where there is a sum of ten .
We'll use Go Fish to practice our friends of ten. I begin by reviewing how to play the game, and ask students to turn and talk with the partner about the rules of Go Fish. I model playing the game using a deck of large cards, initing a student to be my game partner.
The goal is for students to build fluency with Facts of Ten, and some students may have automaticity at this point. But not all students will be there yet, so using ten frame and counters is the best approach to building that fluency and automaticity. In using a ten frame, students are encouraged to subitize the "difference", after building the known number and looking at how many frames remain empty. Visualization is a critical "middle" stage in students' mathematical development.
Once students have played the game once or twice, call the students back together to discuss what they know about Friends of Ten and math fact fluency. I find that the summarizer is important to review the skills learned and practiced that day. The students get an opportunity to share and hear about the learning of their peers.