Have students gather in a group and sit where they can all see you. I show them a blank 10 Frame Card (see unit resources for a set of them). I will point out that it is called a ten frame and that there are to boxes on the card. There are 5 on top and 5 on the bottom. I explain that I am will flash a ten frame with some dots in it. I will only flash it for a few seconds. Their job is to determine how many dots they see. Once they know, they should put their thumb on their chin. I use this strategy, to prevent kids from shouting out and also from distracting others by waving their hands. By putting their thumbs on their chin, they a signaling to me that they no the answer but not distracting others who are still thinking. I can also scan the group to see who isn't putting their thumb on their chin and check with them for understanding. Finally, I will ask the students to whisper shout what number they saw. Over time, I will develop this routine to include partner pair sharing, explanation of strategy, and how many more dots to get to ten (i.e. if there are 6 dots then there would need to be 4 more to have 10). When students start solving for that unknown addend, they are using CCSS.Math.Content.1.OA.D.8. Using the ten frame helps build students compliments of 10. this is an important developmental foundation that much of their additive reasoning is built upon.
Advanced Preparation: You will need a piece of poster paper, and yellow and red connecting cubes.
I gather the students in front of the displayed chart paper and start by drawing a big plate (circle) on the paper. I tell them that this morning I was really hungry and decided to eat some apples and bananas for breakfast. I cut them up into slices and put them into a bowl. I then used a big spoon and scooped some onto my plate. My spoon can only hold 7 slices of fruit.
I then tell them that I want them to imagine that I scooped 7 pieces onto my plate and that some of the slices were apples and some of them were bananas. Then ask them How many of each could I have? How many apples and how many bananas? Remind them that I have 7 slices in all.
I then write 7 in all on the chart paper above the big plate. Let them come up with a couple of suggestions (have cubes available for modeling). After a couple of examples, let the students know that there is more than one solution and that they need to find other ones than the two just modeled. Students are using addition within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to by using objects, drawings, and equations CCSS.Math.Content.1.OA.A.1.
Hand each student a copy of the 7 Apples and Bananas sheet (see resource Apples and Bananas). Allow students to work alone or in pairs and ask them to solve the problem. Students are identifying a starting point to solve the problem (CCSS.Math.Practice.MP1). Have a bunch of red and yellow connecting cubes available (the colors allow for easier connection to apples and bananas). Students are counting to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral (CCSS.Math.Content.1.NBT.A.1).
What You Are Looking For:
How do students record their work? Are they using pictures, manipulatives, numbers, or mental computations?
How do they keep track of the total number of apples and bananas?
How many combinations can each student find?
Have the students bring their worksheet to the carpet and sit in front of the big poster that was used to start the lesson. Ask one of the students to share one of their solutions. As the student shares his/her solution (i.e. 4 apples and 3 bananas) others raise their hand if they found the same one. The students are making sense of quantities and their relationship int he problem. The students will see that if I have one less apple, I will need one more banana (CCSS.Math.Practice.MP2).
As each solution is shared, write it on the plate. You want the focus of the conversation to be on the combinations of 7 and not the recording method. Continue seeking new solutions. If someone repeats an already stated solution, point out where that specific one was recorded.
Wrap up after you have a variety of solutions but not all of the possible ways. Let them know that you haven't found all of the solutions.
We will continue to work on problems like this throughout the year. I will hang up the large poster as a reference chart for future use.