##
* *Reflection: Student Self-Assessment
Human Population Pyramids (3 of 3) - Section 5: EVALUATE 2: AP everything

The College Board describes the design of the Advanced Placement Earth Science course as follows:

[it is] to be the equivalent of a one-semester, introductory college course in environmental science, through which students engage with the scientific principles, concepts, and methodologies required to understand the interrelationships of the natural world. The course requires that students identify and analyze natural and human-made environmental problems, evaluate the relative risks associated with these problems, and examine alternative solutions for resolving or preventing them. Environmental Science is interdisciplinary, embracing topics from geology, biology, environmental studies, environmental science, chemistry, and geography.

This description is very similar to this curriculum. The primary difference is that this curriculum emphasizes fewer topics and allows for their exploration in greater depth. A secondary difference is that this course better meets the mathematical abilities of the majority of enrolled students. At my school underdeveloped algebra skills somewhat determine how students explore material. While there are mathematical modeling expectations, there are fewer lessons dedicated to data analysis and data visualization than there would be in a traditional Advanced Placement course.

Even so, students do rigorous work with data anaylysis and data visualization in this course. The Population Unit is one that particularly builds these skills. As such, assessment structures can be aligned with Advanced Placement style questions.

**One great teacher move for this assessment is to explicitly tell the class that these are college-level questions AFTER they have completed them. Of course, this will depend entirely on the personality of a given class. Some years I have students that become highly motivated by the challenge of college questions; this year, however, most of my classes became anxious and defeatist at any mention of college. When I would reveal that students had successfully completed college level questions, many students were incredulous. And then the next time we worked on these types of questions, the "it's too hard excuse" doesn't fly.**

*Advanced placements questions as checks for understanding*

*Student Self-Assessment: Advanced placements questions as checks for understanding*

# Human Population Pyramids (3 of 3)

Lesson 10 of 16

## Objective: Students will be able to 1) make correlations between the shapes of the graphs and the growth patterns of different countries; and 2) apply understanding of population problems to solve questions from the Environmental Science AP exam.

** How do we represent the characteristics of diverse human populations? **The "Human Population Pyramids" has become a staple of the AP Environmental Science curriculum.

*How do we represent important information about human population through an impactful visual? How do we make quick inferences about populations from visualized data?*In learning about population pyramids, students will have to engage with data visualization, drawing evidence from non-text sources, statistical analysis, modeling, computational thinking, and social and political factors that influence populations. As with "Cemetery Secrets", "Human Population Pyramids" pushes students to represent demographic data of multiple human populations and then apply this data to real-world problem solving.

First lesson: Students explore a gapminder presentation of human population growth over the last 200 years to develop ideas about factors that influence different rates of growth. Then students build on this initial exploration by learning about how scientists use population pyramids to describe the attributes of a human populations. Next, students collect personal data and develop the skills of constructing a population pyramid. Finally, students discuss the process of creating population pyramids and share understanding of the importance of population pyramids as data visualization tools.

Second lesson: Building on the creation of population pyramids from the prior lesson, students formally define population pyramids and describe their applications. Students then work in groups to construct population pyramids for a range of countries. Once students have constructed these pyramids, they peer review work from other groups and describe how populations pyramids describe the unique social forces at work within a given country. Finally, students choose a country to explore in greater depth during the third lesson.

**Third lesson: Students begin by practicing their ability to analyze population pyramids through an online tutorial. Students then use a population pyramid database to construct a profile of the county selected at the end of the previous lesson; this activity is essentially practice for the unit CAPSTONE. Finally, students check their proficiency with human population pyramids by working through a series of questions from recent Advanced Placement examinations in Environmental Science.**

*By the end of the "Human Populations Pyramid" sequence successful students will have met the following objectives:*

*calculate percentages using raw numbers for each age/gender group in a given population**construct a population age/gender distribution graph for one of six different countries**make correlations between the shapes of the graphs and the growth patterns of different countries**apply understanding of population problems to solve questions from the Environmental Science AP exam.*

**HUMAN DEMOGRAPHY SEQUENCING NOTE: For an overview of what students will learn about human demography and how this learning builds towards the CAPSTONE for this unit, see the outline below:**

**7 Billion : Students learn about factors that have influenced the growth of the human population over time.**

**Focus question: ***How has the human population grown so large so quickly?*

**Cemetery secrets: Students learn that modeling the survivorship of different human societies reveals that human demography data is heterogeneous. The "human population" is actually many human populations, separated by geography and time.**

**Focus questions:**

*What data can we use to study populations of the past?**How can we model the death rate of a population?*

**Human Population Pyramids: Students learn how to develop the population pyramid data visualization tool to formally represent an analyze the various human populations throughout the world. In this process, students develop an evidence-based understanding of how different population structures uniquely impact the Earth and how these unique impacts will become more or less intense over time.**

**Focus questions:**

*How can we represent the essential demographic data of a human population using an elegant data visualization tool?**What demographic information does the shape of a population pyramid reveal and how does this shape predict future a population' future growth?**How might the population pyramids of countries be used to develop public policy?***How do different rates of development within a country influence how specific human populations will impact the environments?**

**Demographic Transition: Students learn about a model of how population change over time and use this model to describe how human populations will impact the Earth in the future.**

**Focus question: ****How do different rates of development within a country influence how specific human populations will impact the environment?**

**PRIOR KNOWLEDGE NOTE: Students should have demonstrated proficiency with survivorship curves prior to this lesson. Population pyramids are another data visualization tool that will require many of the same skills that students needed for survivorship curves, such as collecting data, processing data for use in a graph, plotting data, drawing conclusions from data, comparing the meaning of different graphs, and using data visualizations to make predictions about future population growth. **

**RESOURCE NOTE: The attached PROTOTYPE ACTIVITY GUIDE contains a series of learning activities that might be modified by educators for classroom use.**

*expand content*

*What is the purpose of this section?*

Students identify the relationship between the shape of a population pyramid and the growth rate of a population. *By the end of this FLIPPED assignment students should be able to describe the general relationship between the shape of a population pyramid and the growth rate of a population.*

*What will students do?*

Students complete this FLIPPED assignment before class.

TASK: *What is the relatinship between the shape of a population pyramid and the growth rate of a population? Use this modeling resource to investigate this question. Look at the pyramid shape for at least one point in FIVE DIFFERENT DECADES. Pro-tip: the pink line representing the population growth rate is flatter when a population is growing slowly.*

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#### PRACTICE: Opening

*15 min*

*What is the purpose of this section?*

Students build on the FLIPPED assignment to practice demographic analytic skills developed during the previous lesson. *By the end of this activity students should be able to accurately match a country with a description of its unique human population and should be able to quickly represent demographic information as an accurate population pyramid.*

*What will students do?*

TASK 1: Students will complete at least THREE problems from this interactive developed by PBS. Students will need to match provided demographic data, such as births per woman and infant mortality, with the corresponding country. This task requires students to be able to translate quantitative data into pyramid shapes.

**ADDITIONAL RESOURCES NOTE:**

- Students interested in finding more quantitative demographic information should explore this resource.
- Students interested in observing the changing shape of population pyramids in specific countries over time should use this resource.

TASK 2: Students share answers in groups and then choose one of the countries from the interactive-these are India, Japan, Kenya, or the United States-and draw the population pyramids of this country from 1950, 2000, and 2050. *These pyramids should be "shape sketches" that capture the shape of the pyramid, but not the actual data from each year.*

TASK 3: Each group shares out the pyramids drawn for the chosen country and explains reasoning.

TASK 4: The whole class discusses the relationship between a population pyramid shape and the underlying demographics of a country.

*What will teachers do?*

**Students may need support translating quantitative data into population pyramid shapes. Guiding questions that elicit students' prior knowledge are best here. ***When women have many children, is the pyramid usually wide or narrow?*

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#### EVALUATE 1: Country time

*15 min*

*What is the purpose of this section?*

Students practice the type of analysis that they will need for the upcoming Unit CAPSTONE. The teacher gathers data related to students' interested. *By the end of this activity students should be able to describe the characteristics of one of the countries that they learned about during the peer to peer learning activity from the previous lesson.*

*What will students do?*

First, student groups will return to the country (these are Nigeria, France, India, United States, Mexico, and China) that they selected as most interesting during the previous lesson and develop responses to the following questions.

- Are there more elderly women or men? Why might this be the case?
- Can you tell from just the graphs which country has the most people?
- What factors could change the shape of the pyramid in the future?
- Which country seems to have the slowest rate of population growth?
- Do pyramids of developed countries look different from pyramids of developing countries? How?

Next, each group will share findings within the group that originally developed the population pyramid for the chosen country. *The goal for students is to self-assess their ability to accurately interpret a given population pyramid.*

*What will the teacher do?*

I will circulate and provide guiding questions to help students answer questions. *Can you find an example of a population pyramid that you have looked at previously that more women than men? When you examined pyramids in the FLIPPED assignment what types of countries had pyramid shapes and which types of countries had pyramids shaped more like rectangles? What are the underlying characteristics of these countries? I will also begin to record students interests, strengths, and weaknesses; this information will be used to build out resources for the Unit CAPSTONE.*

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#### EVALUATE 2: AP everything

*20 min*

*What is the purpose of this section?*

Students assess understanding of learning objectives by applying skills and conceptual understanding to rigorous problems. The teacher is able to collect data describing students' current proficiency. *By the end of this section students should be able to successfully answer and EXPLAIN an Advanced Placement level multiple choice and free response question.*

*What will students do?*

Students assess understanding of the mastery of the objectives for this unit by solving Advanced Placement Environmental Science multiple choice and free response questions.

For multiple choice questions, students must respond with a narrative that include the evidence used to choose the correct answer. Free response questions should consist of at least one paragraph.

Sample problems are available in the PROTOTYPE ACTIVITY GUIDE.

*One way to structure this activity is to set up eight different station. Each is dedicated to a single question. Assuming a group size of four or five students, only five or six stations will be in use at any given time. At each station, have a "cheat sheet" in an envelope that students open only "in case of emergency." This sheet will have information about the problem, additional resources to explore, and hints about sections of the PROTOTYPE ACTIVITY GUIDE to check for help. Once students have answered a question with evidence, and all students at the station agree that the evidence is appropriate, then the groups can move to another free station. *

For ideas about why Advanced Placement style questions were used see the REFLECTION.

*What will the teacher do?*

Rather than model how to complete each question, I will redirect students to the appropriate activity from this sequence of lessons that will allow for necessary scaffolding. Additionally, I will pair students with "learning experts" in a "get one, give one" learning dynamic. *What this means is that when a student demonstrates proficiency to me on a given question, that student becomes a learning expert in the room. If another students has particular difficulty with that same question, the learning expert teaches the appropriate solution. The learner "gets one." Once this learner understands the question, he or she becomes the new "learning expert." Now the new learning expert "gives one" to the next student that has difficulty.*

*expand content*

*What will students do?*

Each student will share out one assessment question that was a strength area and one assessment question that was a struggle area. This information is celebrates growth within the group and also highlights areas that may need to be retaught during the next lesson so that students can be successful with the final Unit CAPSTONE.

*expand content*

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- LESSON 1: Population ecology
- LESSON 2: Limiting factors and models of population growth (1 of 2)
- LESSON 3: Limiting factors and models of population growth (2 of 2)
- LESSON 4: SKILL BUILDER: Exponential and logistic growth
- LESSON 5: 7 billion
- LESSON 6: Cemetery secrets (1 of 2)
- LESSON 7: Cemetery secrets (2 of 2)
- LESSON 8: Human Population Pyramids (1 of 3)
- LESSON 9: Human Population Pyramids (2 of 3)
- LESSON 10: Human Population Pyramids (3 of 3)
- LESSON 11: Demographic transition
- LESSON 12: Are humans on the verge of collapse? (1 of 3)
- LESSON 13: Are humans on the verge of collapse? (2 of 3)
- LESSON 14: Are humans on the verge of collapse? (3 of 3)
- LESSON 15: CAPSTONE: Population and environment by design (1 of 2)
- LESSON 16: CAPSTONE: Population and environment by design (2 of 2)