##
* *Reflection: Online Resources
Looking at One-Variable Data Sets - Section 2: Structured Discussion

Current reforms and initiatives like CCSS, STEM, PARCC, and 21st Century Skills all call for an improvement in student understanding of statistics. As a result, a tremendous amount of support has been given towards the improvement of K-12 statistics education. Check frequently for new ideas, in-depth lesson plans, multi-media representations, etc. Two great online resources include Annenburg Learner (“Against All Odds”) and the American Statistical Association (“STatistics Education Web”), both introduced below.

“What does Annenburg Learner do? Our mission is to advance excellent teaching in American schools through the development and distribution of multimedia resources for teaching and learning. We are a division of the Annenberg Foundation, which funds a wide range of programs in education and other areas.” https://www.learner.org/courses/againstallodds/index.html

“One of the goals of the American Statistical Association is to improve statistics education at all levels. Through the STatistics Education Web (STEW), the ASA is reaching out to K-12 mathematics and science teachers who teach statistics concepts in their classrooms. STEW is an online resource for peer-reviewed lesson plans for K-12 teachers. The web site is maintained by the ASA and accessible to K-12 teachers throughout the world.” http://www.amstat.org/education/STEW/

*Improving Statistics Education*

*Online Resources: Improving Statistics Education*

# Looking at One-Variable Data Sets

Lesson 2 of 13

## Objective: SWBAT graph one-variable data sets and calculate summary statistics like mean, median and standard deviation.

## Big Idea: Making graphs and calculating summary statistics helps us describe one-variable data sets.

*90 minutes*

#### Warm-Up

*15 min*

Students complete Warm up - Representing One-Variable Data Sets in order to practice making dot-plots, bar-charts and histograms. My students have learned to make these charts in middle school so a quick review should get them back up to speed. If not, there are some good free online videos available that I can point them towards.

After the warm-up, we review the previous day's assignment, WS Descriptive Stats Vocabulary. My goal in assigning this packet was to help them acquire the vocabulary they will need to be able to discuss the statistical concepts in this unit. Students will have had the opportunity to check their work on Edmodo, so the time we spend going over the homework is really about addressing specific questions they developed in checking their work.

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#### Structured Discussion

*30 min*

When students have completed the warm-up, we will look at the posters from the previous day's presentations. As we review the posters, I explain that our study of statistics will be divided into two parts:

**one-variable (univariate) statistics****two-variable (bivariate) statistics**

I point out which of the presentations involved a single variable and which ones involved two variables. I let students know that our initial unit will focus on one-variable statistics.

To begin our study of **univariate statistics**, we review the warm-up work, in which students created a bell-shaped histogram, a left-skewed box plot and a right-skewed dot plot. Students have made and described these plots in Algebra 1 (S-ID.1), so I anticipate that this will be familiar material for them. We discuss how the plots should look and my students take a few notes on the various ways that the distribution of a single variable can be portrayed (dot plot, box plot, histogram, stem plot) and the shapes that the distributions can take (bell-shaped, skewed, bimodal, uniform).

Returning to the data used for the Warm up, I ask students to calculate the mean and median of each of the three data sets. If necessary, I review how to calculate mean and median and provide some notes on this.

We discuss the relationship between the mean and median for symmetric and skewed distributions. We explore the following pattern:

- for symmetric distributions, mean = median
- for right skewed distributions mean > median
- for left-skewed distributions mean < median

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Standard deviation can be a difficult topic. The formula is complicated-looking and my students do not always see the need for a measure of dispersion in the first place. To address this, I present them with a data set, WS Quiz, Test, Project Scores, with three three variables. The distribution of these data sets (quiz, test and project scores) have the following characteristics:

- The mean and range of the quiz and project scores are the same
- The standard deviation of the quizzes is much higher than the standard deviation of the project scores.
- The mean test score for tests is lower that the quiz scores, but the standard deviation is the same.

Because the quiz and project scores have the same mean and range but a different standard deviation, comparing these distributions makes a nice introduction to standard deviation.

The procedure for making plots of one-variable distributions on the TI-Nspire graphing calculators is spelled out in WS Quiz, Test, Project Scores. I have typed the data from the worksheet into a spreadsheet, TI NSpire Data: Test Quiz Project, that I send to them through the Navigator system. I tell my students to follow the steps on the worksheet and answer the questions about the distributions printed on the back.

When they have completed this work, we come together to discuss it. Through this discussion, I introduce the concept of standard deviation and the method of computing it. We work a few examples of calculating standard deviation by hand using variables from our class data set.

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#### Wrap Up and Assignment

*15 min*

To reinforce the big picture of the day's work, I ask students to describe three distributions presented graphically in WS Describing Univariate Data Sets. I want my students to remember that the calculations and procedures we are working with are all about being able to describe the distribution of values that have a context.

For homework, students will compare the distributions of two variables in WS Comparing Distributions. In this worksheet, students will compare age distributions of attendees at two events [**MP2**].

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- LESSON 1: Introduction to Statistics
- LESSON 2: Looking at One-Variable Data Sets
- LESSON 3: Describing Single-Variable Data Sets
- LESSON 4: One-Variable Distribution Activity
- LESSON 5: Bell-Shaped Distributions and the Normal Model
- LESSON 6: Quiz on Distributions and the Empirical Rule
- LESSON 7: Using Technology with Normal Model
- LESSON 8: Assessing Statistical Significance DAY 1
- LESSON 9: Assessing Statistical Significance DAY 2
- LESSON 10: Developing Confidence Intervals DAY 1
- LESSON 11: Developing Confidence Intervals DAY 2
- LESSON 12: Review of One-Variable Statistics
- LESSON 13: Unit Assessment: One-Variable Statistics