##
* *Reflection: Intervention and Extension
What is the Sign of the Sum? - Section 2: Problem Solving

I asked students to add one thing to questions 1 and 2. Instead of asking students to only "list the letters of the problems", I also asked them to write the problem. Even though the information is in the table, this addition made it easier to answer the questions and to see the relationship between the sum of positive and negatives and how their respective magnitudes determine the sign of the sum.

Question 1 as originally written would result in:

C, E, G, H

Compare that to this:

C ) 5 + (-3) = 2

E ) 2 + 4 = 6

G) -5 + 9 = 4

H) 15 + (-9) = 6

I think you agree it is easier to see here that these are composed of sums of positives and negatives - different types of sums. It is much easier than having to parse the table each time.

*Answering the Questions*

*Intervention and Extension: Answering the Questions*

# What is the Sign of the Sum?

Lesson 4 of 27

## Objective: SWBAT determine when the sum of two integers is positive, negative, or zero using counters as a model

## Big Idea: Students model sums with counters to create a visual model of when a sum will be positive, negative or zero.

*50 minutes*

#### Introduction

*10 min*

The purpost of the introduction is to make sure students know two things: 1) The essential question; 2) How to find sums using counters.

I will make sure that every students has 10 positive counters and 10 negative counters. I like to use green for positive and red for negative, but I have often seen people use black for positive as a link to the phrase "in the black". I do not have any black counters.

Before students work on the first 8 problems, I will teach them how to use the counters. I will describe the value of each color and then explain a zero pair. Then using the document camera, I will place various combinations of positive and negative chips on display. I will ask, what is the sum? I will give students a few seconds to process and then I will **cold call** a student. Depending on my mood that day and the dynamic of the class, I may have them write their responses on a whiteboard. Sometimes whiteboard work magically elevates their mood!

After we have done several problems and I see that nearly all students can easily find sums, I will have them do the first 8 problems. I will ask that they model using their chips, but I would like them to write plusses (+) and minuses (-) to model the problems as well. This will give them a tool to use if they need verification of an integer sum (**MP5**). It will also make it easy for me to diagnose any issues as I am walking around the room.

Students may need to be reminded that the parentheses around the second addend are visual only. They help to visually separate the negative value from the addition operation but they have no effect on the computation. Also, look out for students that may confuse the parentheses with absolute value! The difference is easy for a math teacher to see but not always a young student who is trying to make sense of so many new (or fairly new) symbols and concepts!

This narrative refers to page 1:DetermineIfSumIsPosNegOrZeroUsingCounters_Intro.docx

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#### Problem Solving

*15 min*

Now that students have a handle on how to use the chip model, we can address the essential question of the lesson. Students will work with their pairs or trios to fill in a table of 11 sums to evaluate if a sum is positive, negative or zero. The first question should lead students to see that positive sums can result from a positive and a negative or two positives. The second question should lead students to see that different signs or two negatives can lead to a negative sum. Question 3 is where students make the connection between absolute value and the resulting sign. I think **MP2** and **MP7** are the primary practices that students must put to use to make sense of the questions. Questions 5 and 6 then lead students to create a rule for sums (**MP8**). As students work through the tasks, I will be looking to make sure that the tables are being filled in correctly first, so that students can then correctly answer the questions. For question 3, I will push students to be as specific as possible and to use correct mathematical language. For example, if a student says a sum of different signs will be negative when there are more negatives, I will ask them what they mean by more negatives. What mathematical term could they use instead of more negative?

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Problems 1-3 of the independent practice give students a chance to apply their understanding of the day's essential question on integers that are not as practical to model. Here is a chance to make sense of structure to determine the sign of the sums (**MP7**).

Problems 4-7 present an even more abstract application of the the essential understanding. Students must make sense of the relative magnitude of the two addends in order to find the sign of the sum. (**MP2**).

Problems 8-9 ask students to test the truth of statements and explain their reasoning. (**MP3**).

Problems 10-11 are the easiest problems of the set. If I have did my job during the introduction section of the lesson, no student should struggle with these two problems. Yet, it is a reminder that the counter model is a useful way ot understand the sums of integers. (**MP5**)

Problems 14-16, ask students to use the commuatative property to evaluate the sum of three addends. Two of the sums make a zero pair. Attending to structure (**MP7**) in this manner, is a useful method for evaluating sums.

The first 3 extension problems ask students to determine the sign of sums of non-integer rational numbers.

The next 3 problems ask students to solve simple one-step equations. If a student struggles with one of these questions, I will use language from the current lesson. Using problem 22 as an example I may ask: What is the sign of the sum? Based on the sign of the sum and the sign and magnitude of the known addend, what must be the sign of the unknown addend? Will the unknown addend have a magnitude that is greater than, less than, or equal to the known addend. Again, this is an application of **MP2**.

The last 4 problems of the extension are to let students see that the counter model can be applied to non-integer rational numbers. I want to empower students (before teaching a formal lesson) to solve such sums on their own.

This narrative refers to pages 3-4 of:

DetermineIfSumIsPosNegOrZeroUsingCounters_CountersPracticeIncluded_Module.docx

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#### Exit Ticket

*5 min*

The exit ticket asks students to explain cases where a sum will be negative, positive and zero. I have required students to use the counter model in their explanations. I want to get them in the habit of making drawings as a way to support their reasoning. (**MP4**)

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##### Similar Lessons

###### Adding and Subtracting Integers on a Number Line

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- LESSON 1: Fractions as Quotients - Using Long Division to Convert a Fraction to a Decimal
- LESSON 2: Finding the Distance Between Integers On a Number Line
- LESSON 3: Where Do We Go From Here? Adding Integers on the Number Line
- LESSON 4: What is the Sign of the Sum?
- LESSON 5: Algorithms for Adding Integers
- LESSON 6: How Addition and Subtraction are Related (Part 1 of 3)
- LESSON 7: Subtracting for More or Less. Subtracting Integers on a Number Line
- LESSON 8: How Addition and Subtraction are Related (Part 2 of 3)
- LESSON 9: How Addition and Subtraction are Related (Part 3 of 3)
- LESSON 10: Algorithms for Subtracting Integers
- LESSON 11: Assessment - Fluency and Concepts of Integer Sums and Differences
- LESSON 12: Integer Product Signs - Using Counters to Discover Signs of Products
- LESSON 13: Integer Quotients
- LESSON 14: Expand Expressions Using the Distributive Property
- LESSON 15: Integers Assessment
- LESSON 16: Finding the Distance Between Signed Decimals on a Number Line
- LESSON 17: Adding and Subtracting Positive and Negative Decimals on a Numberline
- LESSON 18: Adding and Subtracting Signed Decimals Using a Procedure
- LESSON 19: Multiplying Signed Decimals
- LESSON 20: Dividing Signed Decimals
- LESSON 21: Finding the Distance Between Signed Fractions on a Number Line
- LESSON 22: Adding and Subtracting Positive and Negative Fractions on a Numberline
- LESSON 23: Adding and Subtracting Positive and Negative Fractions Using Counters
- LESSON 24: Adding and Subtracting Signed Fractions Using a Procedure
- LESSON 25: Multiplying Signed Fractions
- LESSON 26: Dividing Signed Fractions
- LESSON 27: Rational Numbers Operations - Final Unit Assessment