Day 2- How do Rocks Form?
Lesson 10 of 11
Objective: SWBAT identify the processes that cause rocks to change.
5e Lesson Plan Model
Many of my science lessons are based upon and taught using the 5E lesson plan model: Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate. This lesson plan model allows me to incorporate a variety of learning opportunities and strategies for students. With multiple learning experiences, students can gain new ideas, demonstrate thinking, draw conclusions, develop critical thinking skills, and interact with peers through discussions and hands-on activities. With each stage in this lesson model, I select strategies that will serve students best for the concepts and content being delivered to them. These strategies were selected for this lesson to facilitate peer discussions, participation in a group activity, reflective learning practices, and accountability for learning.
The Earth's Changing Surface unit focuses on some processes that change Earth's surface slowly, over a long period of time, or abruptly. In order for students to develop an understanding that the surface is constantly changing, they take part in a variety of guided inquiries geared towards scaffolding this understanding. In the first part of the unit, students explore the structure of the Earth and processes that cause changes to it. These lessons include earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, physical and chemical weathering, erosion and deposition. They need to develop an understanding of these processes and how they change the Earth's surface for the second part of the unit which focuses primarily on minerals, rocks, and the rock cycle. Students apply their understanding of these processes as they investigate the formation of rocks and the cycle of changes they go through in a lifetime.
The Day 2- How Do Rocks Form lesson provides students opportunity to apply their understanding of how processes change rocks from one form to another. The lesson begins with a review of the processes that change rocks with the activity, Fast Pass. This activity helps students recall concepts learned yesterday. After reviewing, students take part in actively simulating the processes that change rock by using starbursts to create and change each rock. They create sediments out of them by weathering (breaking) them into pieces. Then they compact and cement them together. Next, they apply heat and pressure to this sedimentary rock to now form a metamorphic rock. Once they have created this rock, I melt them down into magma and then we let them cool and hardened into igneous rocks. Throughout this activity, I we engage in observations and discussions. We examine and note the various changes to the characteristic of the rocks. They answer a series of analysis questions to show their understanding. The lesson ends with a diagram exit ticket. Students label the diagram with the correct processes that changed the rocks shown in. I collect this and use as a formative assessment.
Next Generation Science Standards
This lesson will address the following NGSS Standard(s):
ESS2 Earth's Systems
Earth’s major systems are the geosphere (solid and molten rock, soil, and sediments), the hydrosphere (water and ice), the atmosphere (air), and the biosphere (living things, including humans). These systems interact in multiple ways to affect Earth’s surface materials and processes. The ocean supports a variety of ecosystems and organisms, shapes land forms, and influences climate. Winds and clouds in the atmosphere interact with the land forms to determine patterns of weather.
I address this standard with my fifth grade because the elementary school's within my district do not formally teach science; therefore my students enter middle school (fifth grade) with a limited science background. By engaging students with activities to support this NGSS standard, I am providing with them experiences that will provide them a foundation for later lessons involving soil, and plants.
Students are engaged in the following scientific and engineering practices
2.) Developing and Using Models: Students develop models of rocks using starbursts and use them to demonstrate processes that change rocks from one form to another.
4.) Analyze and Interpret Data: Students use a series of questions to make sense of the processes that cause change rocks.
The Day 1- How Do Rocks Form lesson correlates to other interdisciplinary areas. This Crosscutting Concepts includes
2.) Cause and Effect: Students develop models of rocks to make observations of the effects of processes that change rocks from one form to another.
Disciplinary Core Ideas within this lesson include:
ESS2.A Earth Materials and Systems
Importance of Modeling to
Develop Student Responsibility, Accountability, and Independence
Depending upon the time of year, this lesson is taught, teachers should consider modeling how groups should work together; establish group norms for activities, class discussions, and partner talks. In addition, it is important to model think aloud strategies. This will set up students to be more expressive and develop thinking skills during the activity. The first half of the year, I model what group work and/or talks “look like and sound like.” I intervene the moment students are off task with reminders and redirecting. By the second and last half of the year, I am able to ask students, “Who can give of three reminders for group activities to be successful?” Who can tell us two reminders for partner talks?” Students take responsibility for becoming successful learners. Again before teaching this lesson, consider the time of year, it may be necessary to do a lot of front loading to get students to eventually become more independent and transition through the lessons in a timely manner.
EXPLORE TEAMS (Pre-Set)
For time management purposes, I use “lab rats ” where each student has a number on the back of his or her chair, 1,2,3,4 (students sit in groups of 4)and displayed on the board. For each activity I use lab rats, I switch up the roles randomly so students are experiencing different task responsibilities which include: Director, Materials Manager, Reporter, and Technician. It makes for smooth transitions and efficiency for set up, work, and clean-up.
To re-engage students, I use the strategy fastpass to review the processes that change Earth's surface. I have students create a whole class circle. Then I hold up a ball and explain, "First, I will ask a question about one of the processes (from yesterday's lesson) that changes Earth' Surface. I am going to set the timer for an unknown amount of time. During that time we are passing this ball around the circle until the timer goes off. When it goes off the person holding the ball answers the question. We repeat this activity for several rounds."
I selected this strategy to reactivate student knowledge about processes as they are expected to use them in today's activity of making rocks. It's an active way to get them thinking. Using the timer also provides some wait time which could be beneficial to students who need to a little extra time to recall information.
Preparing to Investigate
To start, I reiterate that the rocks that make up the geosphere of the Earth are constantly being recycled. One form of rock is often changed into another form of rock through certain processes of nature that occur over time.
I tell students that we are going to simulate this cycling of rocks with starbursts. I explain we are using starbursts to create a rock and we are going to have it go through the different processes we learned about in yesterday's lesson. I tell them we are making our starburst rock change three different ways.
To begin, I have one student from each group retrieve a tray from the supply table. This tray has enough bags for each group member (bags contain 4 different colored starburst, red, yellow, orange, and pink.) I give them four different colors because I want students to see the changes each part of the rock goes through as they create a different type of rock. The tray also includes enough scissors, pieces of wax paper, and tin foil for each student.
Guided Inquiry with an Animated Simulation
After students simulate a process on their starburst rock, I use a computer simulation to show the effects of the process on a real rock. This helps them make the connection between their starburst rock model and a real rock.
Once we have all of our materials, I instruct students to place the wax paper in front of them. This serves as a surface for the starburst rock. I model the first set of directions for them, and then ask them to follow through with it.
I point out that the rocks went through weathering, eroded off the land, and deposited somewhere else. Then I post the words compaction and cementation on the board. I explain that while these words were not on our process sheet, they were in our reading. We briefly discuss what they mean. I have a student volunteer demonstrate what we could do to simulate that process for our starburst sediments. They cup their hands and press them together. This leads us into step 2.
2.) Put your sediments into a pile and compact (push them) them together into one big piece. Do this a few times to make sure all the pieces stick together (like cement)
These actions simulate the compaction and cementation process. I ask students what kind of rock have we created. Their response is sedimentary. I have the students observe their rock and share features they notice about their sedimentary rock then show the weather/erosion and compaction/cementation computer simulation.
Next, I say, "We are going to take our sedimentary rock and change it into a metamorphic rock rock. What processes need to happen for it to change?" Students share "heat and pressure." I tell them for heating purposes, they are going to warm their starburst rock in their hand and then use the palm of their hand to apply pressure to it.
3.) Now take your "sedimentary rock" and warm it in your hands. Then fold your sedimentary rock in half and press down on it with the palm of your hand. (add pressure) Repeat this many times.
I ask students, "what kind of rock have we created with heat and pressure." Their response, "Metamorphic Rock" I ask them to observe their new rock and share features about this kind of rock that are different from the sedimentary rocks. I show them the heat and pressure computer simulation for them to see it occur in the real world.
I move on to to making the last change to the rock. I ask students "What rock do we need to create next?" We identify it as the igneous rock. I ask them to tell us the processes that need to take place. We need heat for the rock to melt and become magma. Then, when the magma cools, it will harden. I show the melting and cooling computer simulation.
For this rock change, I have a toaster oven and place the rocks inside for a short time. When they come out, we observe the "liquid magma" and set them aside to cool and harden. I tell the students we will come back to examine it after completing the exit ticket. This will allow enough time to pass so the "melted starburst rock" has time to cool and harden.
Analyzing the Changes -Guided Discussion
I use a set of analysis questions that I have students complete as a way of making sense of their rocks. We discuss responses to these questions as a whole class .
- During the activity, you turned a sedimentary rock into metamorphic rock. How could you turn the sedimentary rock into igneous rock without going through the metamorphic stage?
- Each time you applied a process to your "rock" you probably noticed that rocks could be changed into other forms of rock. How could a rock be changed but still be classified as the same form of rock?
- What type of rock do you think forms from erupting volcanoes?
- What kind of rock is formed from broken pieces of rock?
- How do you think these pieces harden into rocks in nature?
- How can our investigation today be described as a cycle?
- Besides the starbursts, how is our simulation of rock changes different than the real changes rocks go through in nature?
Check for Understanding
Before leaving class, I give students a diagram that shows the three types of rocks on it: sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous. In between these rocks are arrows pointing towards and away form the rocks. Their task is to accurately label the arrows with processes that make the rock change from that form to another.
I collect their diagrams and use them as a formative assessment.